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Understanding Homeland Security
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Understanding Homeland Security

Second Edition
  • Gus Martin - California State University, Dominguez Hills, USA
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July 2016 | 456 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“An excellent introductory text to homeland security, it provides a thorough and informative overview of the topic that is appropriate for undergraduate courses on homeland security.”

Mark Feulner, Florida State University

 

Dr. Gus Martin’s Understanding Homeland Security, Second Edition is a thoroughly updated textbook offering much-needed insight into the complex nature of issues addressed by the homeland security enterprise. This comprehensive textbook addresses such subject areas as emergency management, terrorism, criminal justice administration, intelligence, armed conflict, and social environments. Martin’s pedagogical approach is designed to stimulate critical thinking in readers, allowing them to not only comprehend the fundamentals, but also evolve with the very dynamic nature of homeland security. 

 

The Second Edition introduces readers to homeland security in the modern era, focusing particularly on the post–September 11, 2001 world. Reviewing theories, agency missions, laws and regulations governing the homeland security enterprise, this book keeps readers on the forefront of homeland security.   

 
Acknowledgments
 
Introduction and Rationale
 
Part I. Foundations of Homeland Security
 
Chapter 1. History and Policy: Defining Homeland Security
The Past as Prologue: The Historical Context of Homeland Security

 
External Threats to the Early Republic

 
Domestic Threats to the Early Republic

 
Modern Precursors to Homeland Security

 
Defining an Era: What Is Homeland Security?

 
Chapter Perspective 1.1: The Death of Osama bin Laden

 
The Modern Era of Homeland Security

 
Chapter Perspective 1.2: Homeland Security Presidential Directives

 
Conceptual Foundation: Central Attributes of Homeland Security

 
The Homeland Security Environment: A Dynamic Construct

 
A New Focus: The Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report

 
Domestic Security and Threats to the Homeland: Policy Options

 
Chapter Perspective 1.3: The Symbolism of Targets: Terrorist Attacks Against the United States

 
Domestic Policy Options

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 2. Homeland Security and the All-Hazards Umbrella
The Terrorism Nexus: Conventional and Unconventional Hazards

 
Conventional Weapons

 
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive Hazards

 
The All-Hazards Nexus: Nonterrorist Threats

 
Background: Recent Difficulties in Disaster Relief

 
All-Hazards Emergency Management: Core Concepts

 
Case in Point: Nonterrorist Mass Shootings

 
Chapter Perspective 2.1: Mass Shootings in the United States from Columbine to Sandy Hook

 
Natural Hazards

 
Tropical Cyclonic Storms

 
Chapter Perspective 2.2: Reporting Hurricane Intensity: The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale

 
Case in Point: Superstorm Sandy’s Swath of Destruction

 
Earthquakes

 
Chapter Perspective 2.3: Reporting Earthquake Intensity: The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale

 
Tornadoes

 
Floods

 
Wildland Fires

 
Technological Scenarios

 
Grid Infrastructure Malfunctions

 
Hazardous Material Accidents

 
Non-Wildland Fires

 
Global Perspective: Disaster in Japan: Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

 
Global Perspective: Disaster in Japan: Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 3. The Legal Foundations of Homeland Security
Background: Legal Precedent and Homeland Security

 
International and Domestic Law: Policy Challenges

 
The Historical Context: State Sponsorship of International Terrorism

 
Legitimizing Legal Authority: Classifying State Sponsors and Foreign Terrorist Organizations

 
Chapter Perspective 3.1: Foreign Terrorist Organizations

 
International Law and Counterterrorist Cooperation by the World Community

 
Chapter Perspective 3.2: The Benghazi Attack

 
Chapter Perspective 3.3: The Black September Crisis: Case Study and Historical Context

 
Homeland Security: Statutory Authority

 
The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996

 
The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001

 
The Department of Homeland Security Act of 2002

 
The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005

 
The USA FREEDOM Act of 2015

 
In Perspective: Homeland Security, Counterterrorism, and the Law

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 4. Civil Liberties and Securing the Homeland
Security and Liberty: The Historical Context

 
The Early Republic and Civil War

 
Communism and the Red Scares

 
Wartime Internment Camps

 
Achieving Security

 
Practical Considerations: Civil Liberty and Government Responses

 
Chapter Perspective 4.1: National Security, Reporting Terrorism, and Regulating the Media

 
Case in Point: Data Mining by the National Security Agency

 
Chapter Perspective 4.2: Carnivore: The Dawn of Internet Surveillance

 
Civil Liberty and Countering Extremism Through Reform

 
Case in Point: Cultural Shifts, Inclusion, and Civil Liberty in the United States

 
Balancing Civil Liberties and Homeland Security

 
Terrorist Profiling

 
The Problem of Labeling the Enemy

 
Civil Liberties and Detainees

 
The Ker-Frisbie Rule and Extraordinary Renditions

 
Case in Point: The Torture Debate

 
Global Perspective: Wrongful Prosecution in the United Kingdom

 
Global Perspective: Wrongful Prosecution in the United Kingdom

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 5. Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the Federal Level
The Scope of the Homeland Security Bureaucracy

 
Conceptual Background: The Bureaucratic Context

 
The Federal Bureaucracy Prior to September 11, 2001

 
Case in Point: The Problem of Interagency Disconnect

 
Bureaucratic Transformation After September 11, 2001

 
The Department of Homeland Security

 
The Office of the Secretary

 
Department of Homeland Security Administrative Centers

 
The Homeland Security Missions of Other Federal Agencies

 
The Department of Agriculture

 
The Department of Defense

 
The Department of Energy

 
The Department of Health and Human Services

 
The Department of the Interior

 
The Department of the Treasury

 
The Environmental Protection Agency

 
The Intelligence Community

 
Background: Intelligence Collection and Jurisdiction

 
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Members and Mission

 
Case in Point: The Early Warning Role of Intelligence

 
Chapter Perspective 5.1: Sources of Actionable Intelligence

 
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Challenges

 
Case in Point: Intelligence Miscalculation and the Iraq Case

 
Case in Point: Successful International Intelligence Cooperation

 
The Role of the Military

 
The Homeland Defense Mission of the Department of Defense

 
Case in Point: The Posse Comitatus Act

 
Waging War in the Era of the New Terrorism

 
War in the Shadows

 
Overt Conflict: The Deployment of Military Assets

 
Global Perspective: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for “The Engineer”

 
Global Perspective: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for “The Engineer”

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 6. Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the State and Local Levels
State-Level Homeland Security Systems

 
State Government and Homeland Security: Principal Roles

 
Chapter Perspective 6.1: Governors and the Politics of Crisis Intervention

 
State Government and Emergency Management: Configuration of Services

 
National Collaboration: The National Emergency Management Association

 
The National Homeland Security Consortium

 
Regional Collaboration: Networking and Assistance Across Jurisdictions

 
Local Homeland Security Networking Initiatives

 
The National Association of Counties

 
The National League of Cities

 
The U.S. Conference of Mayors

 
Case in Point: The Challenge of Funding Initiatives

 
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Agencies

 
The Police Mission in Homeland Security Environments

 
The Internal Security Imperatives of Law Enforcement Agencies

 
The Operational Impact of Terrorism: Adaptations by Law Enforcement Agencies

 
Case in Point: Joint Terrorism Task Forces

 
Case in Point: Militarization of the Police

 
Global Perspective: Paramilitary Deployment of Police Units

 
Global Perspective: Paramilitary Deployment of Police Units by Western Democracies

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Part II. Threats and Vulnerabilities
 
Chapter 7. Sea Change: The New Terrorism and Homeland Security
Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate

 
Case in Point: The Political Violence Matrix

 
Combatants, Noncombatants, and the Use of Force

 
Historical Context: The “Old Terrorism” Prior to September 11, 2001

 
The Pre–September 11 Terrorist Environment

 
Chapter Perspective 7.1: Cold War Terrorist-Networking Theory

 
September 11, 2001, and the New Terrorism

 
Chapter Perspective 7.2: The Ideology of Al Qaeda

 
Religion and Terrorism in the Modern Era

 
Chapter Perspective 7.3: Jihad: Struggling in the Way of God

 
The New Terrorism and Globalization

 
Plausible Scenarios: The New Terrorism and New Modes of Warfare

 
Asymmetrical Warfare

 
Case in Point: Asymmetrical Warfare in Paris and Brussels

 
The Paris Attacks

 
The Brussels Attacks

 
Chapter Perspective 7.4: The Appeal of Asymmetrical Warfare

 
Maximum Casualties and the New Terrorism

 
Netwar: A New Organizational Theory

 
Policy Options

 
Countering Extremism

 
Countering the New Terrorism

 
Chapter Perspective 7.5: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media

 
Global Perspective: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism

 
Global Perspective: Tactical Horror: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 8. The Threat at Home: Terrorism in the United States
Extremism in America

 
Chapter Perspective 8.1: Understanding Extremism

 
Left-Wing Extremism in the United States

 
Right-Wing Extremism in the United States

 
Chapter Perspective 8.2: Are Hate Crimes Acts of Terrorism?

 
Sources of International Terrorism in the United States

 
Case in Point: Conspiracy Theories on the American Right

 
Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States

 
Generational Rebellion: New Left Terrorism

 
Civil Strife: Ethnonationalist Terrorism on the Left

 
The Revolution Continues: Leftist Hard Cores

 
Case in Point: The United Freedom Front

 
Single-Issue Violence on the Left

 
Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States

 
The Past as Prologue: The Historical Legacy of the Ku Klux Klan

 
Racial Mysticism: Neo-Nazi Terrorism

 
Chapter Perspective 8.3: Race and the Bible: The Christian Identity Creation Myth

 
Patriot Threats

 
Chapter Perspective 8.4: The Oklahoma City Bombing

 
Case in Point: Moralist Terrorism

 
The New Terrorism in the United States

 
Jihad in America

 
September 11, 2001

 
Case in Point: The Threat from Homegrown Jihadists

 
Case in Point: The Orlando Mass Shooting—Jihadist Terrorism and Hate Crime

 
Lone-Wolf Terrorism in the United States

 
Racial and Anti-Government Lone Wolves

 
Jihadist Lone Wolves

 
Global Perspective: Lone-Wolf Terror in Norway

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 9. Porous Nodes: Specific Vulnerabilities
Cybersecurity

 
Understanding Threats to Cybersecurity

 
Malicious Use of Cyber Technology: Examples

 
Cyberattacks: Potential Targets

 
Cyberterror: Feasibility and Likelihood

 
Aviation Security

 
Symbolic Value: Airline Attacks and Maximum Propaganda Effect

 
Historical Context: The PFLP and the Dawn of Modern Aviation Terrorism

 
The Complexity of Aviation Security

 
Implementing Aviation Security Priorities

 
Case in Point: The Chemical Plot

 
Border Security

 
Undocumented Immigration and Homeland Security

 
Plausible Scenarios: Crime and Insecurity on the Southern Border

 
Case in Point: The Tri-Border Area of South America

 
Case in Point: The Mexican Drug War

 
Port Security

 
Understanding the Terrorist Threat to Ports and Maritime Targets

 
Chapter Perspective 9.1: The Contagion Effect

 
Case in Point: Maritime Cargo Containers

 
Port Security Initiatives and Priorities

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Part III. Preparedness, Response, Recovery
 
Chapter 10. Always Vigilant: Hardening the Target
Information Security: Cyberwar and Hardening Cyberspace

 
Cyberwar as an Antiterrorist Option

 
Modern Surveillance Technologies

 
Chapter Perspective 10.1: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media

 
Case in Point: The Echelon Satellite Surveillance Network

 
Hardening Critical Infrastructure

 
Securing Critical Infrastructure: Background and Context

 
Federal Guidance: The DHS Building and Infrastructure Protection Series

 
Case in Point: BIPS 06/FEMA 426

 
Options for Critical Infrastructure Security and Target Hardening

 
Border Control: Securing National Entry Points

 
Security Considerations and Patrolling the Border

 
Historical Context: The Evolution of the U.S. Border Patrol

 
Hardening the Border: Three Agencies

 
Transportation Security

 
A Complex Arrangement: Components of the Transportation System

 
The Transportation Security Administration

 
Global Perspective: International Law Enforcement Consortia

 
Global Perspective: The Role of the “International Police”

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 11. Critical Resources: Preparedness and Planning
The Role of Proper Planning

 
Foundational Concept: The National Incident Management System

 
Local Planning: The Private Sector

 
Local Planning: Emerging Roles at the Local Government Level

 
Case in Point: Health and Medical Preparedness Strategies

 
Prevention and Mitigation Planning

 
Components of the Prevention and Mitigation Process

 
Federal Mitigation Assistance

 
Chemical and Biological Hazard Planning

 
A Complex Dilemma: Mitigating Chemical and Biological Incidents

 
Chapter Perspective 11.1: Case Study: The Tokyo Subway Nerve Gas Attack and Aftermath

 
Case in Point: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines

 
Radiological and Nuclear Hazard Planning

 
Coordinating Nuclear Security: The Role of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

 
Case in Point: Weaponization of Radiological Agents Revisited

 
Global Perspective: The European Approach to Homeland Security

 
Global Perspective: The European Approach to Homeland Security Preparedness

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Chapter 12. Critical Outcomes: Response and Recovery
National Response and Recovery: Fostering Administrative Coordination

 
The Problem of Reactive Planning

 
Federal National Planning Frameworks and the National Preparedness Goal

 
The Incident Command System

 
Case in Point: Presidential Declarations

 
Federal Response and Recovery Coordination

 
Background: The Progression of Federal Response Planning

 
Case in Point: Implementing the National Response Framework

 
State and Local Response and Recovery Planning

 
Response and Recovery Planning by State Authorities

 
Response and Recovery Planning by Local Authorities

 
Final Consideration: Despite Best Efforts, Is Terrorism Effective?

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Recommended Websites

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Part IV. Homeland Security: An Evolving Concept
 
Chapter 13. The Future of Homeland Security
Near-Term Projections

 
Adaptive Measures: Theoretical and Practical Considerations

 
Controlling Terrorism: Understanding Fundamental Challenges

 
Chapter Perspective 13.1:The Continued Utility of Force

 
Case in Point: International Collaboration on Law Enforcement and Intelligence

 
Threat Environments in the Twenty-First Century

 
Defending the Homeland: Ongoing Patterns of Political Violence

 
The Threat From Ideological Terrorism

 
The Threat From International Terrorism

 
Chapter Perspective 13.2: The Changing Environment of International Terrorism

 
Chapter Summary

 
Key Terms and Concepts

 
On Your Own

 
Web Exercise

 
Recommended Readings

 
 
Homeland Security Timeline
 
Appendix A. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2011. “Terrorism.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 9.
 
Appendix B. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2015. National Preparedness Goal. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security.
 
Glossary
 
Notes
 
Index
 
About the Author

Supplements

Instructor Teaching Site
SAGE offers an exceptionally robust set of offerings for both student and instructor resources, all accessible from each title’s companion website. The Student Study Site is completely open access, making it as easy as possible for your students to use. The Instructor Teaching Site is verified and password-protected, offering you both peace of mind and a wealth of support for your courses.

Calling all instructors!
It’s easy to log on to SAGE’s password-protected Instructor Teaching Site for complete and protected access to all text-specific Instructor Resources. Simply provide your institutional information for verification and within 72 hours you’ll be able to use your login information for any SAGE title! 

Password-protected 
Instructor Resources include the following:
    • Microsoft® Word® test bank, is available containing multiple choice, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
    • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content and features.
    • Sample course syllabi provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
    • Documentaries and dramatic films list to enhance the understanding of the theories and perspectives discussed in the text and to stimulate further discussion
    • Tables and figures from the printed book available in an easily-downloadable format for use in papers, hand-outs, and presentations
    • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
    • Recommended readings list provide a jumping-off point for course assignments, papers, research, group work, and class discussion.
    • Video resources include links to appropriate outlets that appeal to students with different learning styles.
    • Web resources direct both instructors and students to additional materials for further research on important chapter topics.
    • Web exercises guide both instructors and students to useful and current web sites along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics. 
    • Appendices to download and reference on important topics covered in the text.
    • Author videos present interviews with the author to provide contemporary examples that relate back to chapter content.

Student Study Site
Use the Student Study Site to get the most out of your course!
Our Student Study Site is completely open-access and offers a wide range of additional features.

The open-access
 Student Study Site includes the following:
    • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
    • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
    • Recommended readings list provide a jumping-off point for course assignments, papers, research, group work, and class discussion.
    • Video resources include links to appropriate outlets that appeal to students with different learning styles.
    • Web resources direct both instructors and students to additional materials for further research on important chapter topics.
    • Web exercises guide both instructors and students to useful and current web sites along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics. 
    • Appendices to download and reference on important topics covered in the text.
    • Author videos present interviews with the author to provide contemporary examples that relate back to chapter content.

“An excellent introductory text to homeland security, it provides a thorough and informative overview of the topic that is appropriate for undergraduate courses on homeland security.”

Mark Feulner
Florida State University

“By far, the textbook by Gus Martin is one of the best written, illustrative and interactive learning methodologies that will engage students in the topics of homeland security and terrorism.”

Denise R. Womer
Kaplan University

“If you want to obtain a solid basic background of Homeland Security, begin with Gus Martin’s book.”

Irmak Renda-Tanali
University of Maryland University College

“It is well written; the author has a strong positive writer’s voice that I believe my students can benefit from. Understanding Homeland Security by Gus Martin is a modern homeland practitioners must read book.”

Pietro Savo
Daniel Webster College

“An excellent book for class and a great resource”

Dennis W. McLean
Keiser University

“Great book for an introduction to Homeland Security”

Oluponmile Olonilua
Texas Southern University

“Excellent text that is essential for student learning and teaching.”

Terry Campbell
Kaplan University

“The textbook thoroughly addresses the significant issues associated with homeland security. It is concise, focuses on the important concepts and issues associated with homeland security. The pedagogical features of the book will assist in student learning and facilitate the manner in which I address my teaching.”

Darren Gil
Southern University at New Orleans

“An up-to-date, well-organized, well-written, much needed, interesting and attractive book!”

Naim Kapucu
University of Central Florida

“This essential text is an in-depth look into homeland security, similar to that of a handbook, utterly complete in all respects, which can serve as a guide and reference throughout a student’s educational program.”

Holli Vah Seliskar
Kaplan University

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 4

Chapter 5


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