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Stress and Health
Biological and Psychological Interactions

Third Edition
  • William R. Lovallo - University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, University of Oklahoma, USA


March 2015 | 352 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Stress and Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions is a brief and accessible examination of psychological stress and its psychophysiological relationships with cognition, emotions, brain functions, and the peripheral mechanisms by which the body is regulated. Updated throughout, the Third Edition covers two new and significant areas of emerging research: how our early life experiences alter key stress responsive systems at the level of gene expression; and what large, normal, and small stress responses may mean for our overall health and well-being.

 
Chapter 1: Psychosocial Models of Health and Disease
The Standard Biomedical Model and New Approaches to Medicine  
A Biobehavioral Model of Disease and Treatment  
Placebo Effects  
Psychoneuroimmunology  
Cultural, Intrapersonal, and Physiological Influences in Coronary Heart Disease  
Psychosocial Theories of Disease and Treatment  
The Foundation of Behavioral Medicine  
 
Chapter 2: History of the Concept of Stress
The Age of Enlightenment and the Emergence of Scientific Thought  
Descartes and the Mechanical Model of Living Things  
The Worldview and Premises of Modern Science  
The Mind-Body problem  
Claude Bernard and the Modern Biomedical Model  
Claude Bernard and the Vitalists  
Walter Cannon  
Definition of Stress  
Hans Selye  
The Concept of Allostasis  
Additional Considerations on the Stress Concept  
 
Chapter 3: Homeostatic Regulation: Normal Function and Stress Responses
A Hierarchy of Homeostatic Controls  
Intrinsic Control Mechanisms  
Autonomic Controls Over Homeostasis  
Three Autonomic Divisions  
Coordinated Actions of the Autonomic Branches  
Higher Controls Over Homeostasis  
The Hypothalamus and Emotional Expression  
Endocrine Responses During Stress  
Adrenomedullary Response  
Adrenocortical Response  
Negative Feedback by Cortisol  
Cortisol During Stress  
Beta-endorphin  
 
Chapter 4: Physical and Psychological Stress
Classes of Stress Responses  
The Exercise Response  
Exercise and Adaptation to Stress  
The Fight-or-Flight Response  
Different Emotions and Motivations Accompany Exercise and the Fight–Flight Response  
Why Is Exercise Considered Good If It Is a Stressor?  
Psychological Stress  
The Responses to Aversive and Nonaversive Challenges  
Exposure to Noise and Shock  
Activation and Distress  
 
Chapter 5: Central Nervous System Integration of the Psychological Stress Response
Appraisals, Psychological Stress, and Negative Emotions  
Primary and Secondary Appraisals  
Outcomes of Coping Efforts and Physiological Responses  
Central Integration of the Response to Psychological Stress  
The Limbic System and Associated Parts of the Brain  
Primary Appraisals: Sensory Intake and Interpretation of the Environment  
What Is It? And Where Is It?  
Cognition and Emotion: Generating Emotions Based on Appraisal Processes  
Prefrontal-Limbic Interactions and Thoughts and Feelings  
Secondary Appraisals: How Well Did Our Coping Attempt Work?  
Physiological Correlates of Primary and Secondary Appraisal Processes  
Internal Sources of Amygdaloid Activity and Internally Generated Emotional Responses  
Initiation of Behavioral, Autonomic, and Neuroendocrine Responses to Psychological Stressors  
Feedback to the Cortex and Limbic System: The Central Feedback Subsystem  
Autonomic and Endocrine Outflow: The Emotional Response Subsystem  
 
Chapter 6: Stress and the Endocrine System
Overview of Stress Endocrine Regulation  
Activation of Stress Endocrine Secretion and the Central Corticotropin-Releasing Factor System  
Cortisol’s Feedback Actions in the Central Nervous System  
Cortisol Effects on Frontal-Limbic Activity  
Amygdala Responses to Cortisol and Altered Responsivity of the Central Nervous System  
Amygdala Sensitization and Potential Implications for Health  
The Hypothalamic-Sympatho-Adrenomedullary Axis  
Stress Endocrine Secretion and Regulation of Long-Term Stress Reactivity  
Hierarchy of Autonomic and Endocrine Controls Over Homeostasis Leading to Long-Term Memory Formation  
Recap: How Ideas Come to Have Power Over Our Bodies  
 
Chapter 7: The Immune System Stress and Behavior
Overview of the Immune System  
Structural Components of the Immune System  
Immune System Cells  
Immune System Messengers  
Innate Resistance  
Acquired Immunity and Establishment of Immune System Memory  
The Behavior-Immune Interface  
Behavior-Immune Interactions and Health Indicators  
Stress Buffers, Positive Emotions, and Physical Health  
 
Chapter 8: Helplessness Coping and Health
Death Due to Uncontrollable Stress  
Helplessness and Exposure to Uncontrollable Stress  
Studies of Ulceration in Rats  
“Learned Helplessness” and the Consequences of Lack of Control  
Lazarus’s Model of Psychological Stress and Helplessness  
Central Neurotransmitters and Severe Stress  
Uncontrollable Shock, Norepinephrine, and Depression  
Serotonin Mechanisms  
Emotions and Health  
 
Chapter 9: Genes, Stress, and Behavior
Early Life Experience, Epigenetic Programming of Gene Expression, and Stress Reactivity  
A Rat Model of Early Experience, Development, and Responses to Stress  
Maternal Separation and Neglect  
Nurturing by Rat Mothers is Increased by Brief Separation  
Genotype, Genetic Vulnerability to Early Life Adversity, and Psychobehavioral Outcomes in Humans  
 
Chapter 10: Individual Differences in Reactivity to Stress
A Proposed Classification of Individual Differences in Reactivity  
Persons May Differ in Stress Reactivity Because of Inborn Factors or Experience  
Individual Differences in Stress Responses May be Conditioned by Functional Alterations at Three Levels in the System  
Individual Differences in Evaluative and Emotional Processes—Level I  
Individual Differences in Hypothalamic and Brainstem Responses to Stress—Level II  
Individual Differences in Peripheral Responses to Stress—Level III  
 
Chapter 11: Health Implications of Exaggerated and Blunted Stress Reactivity
Reactivity Tests in Medicine  
Health Outcomes Related to Exaggerated Cardiovascular and Endocrine Reactivity  
Individual Differences in Level I Reactivity and Health Implications  
Individual Differences in Level II Reactivity: Cardiovascular Reactivity as a Mediator of Disease Risk  
Individual Differences in Level III Reactivity and Disease  
Blunted Stress Reactivity and Health  
Early Life Adversity and Blunted Stress Reactivity  
Early Life Adversity, Psychological Characteristics, Cognition, and Behavioral Regulation  
Early Life Adversity and Low Versus High Stress Reactivity: Unanswered Questions  
Blunted Stress Reactivity, Social Adversity, and Health  
Discussion  
Exaggerated Reactivity and Disease  
Blunted Reactivity and Disease  
Family Dysfunction, Socioeconomic Status, Neighborhood Characteristics, and Health Outcomes  
 
Chapter 12: Behavior, Stress, and Health
The Historical Dilemma of Mind-Body Dualism  
Matter and Behavior  
Behavioral Medicine in Relation to Traditional Medicine  
Systems Organization and Stress  
Psychological Stress and Its Consequences  
Stress and Behavioral Medicine  
Stress, Stress Reduction, and Improved health  

A recommended reading for the student that has a keen interest in occupational health psychology and stress in particular. The mutual influence between biological and psychological components is key for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and its prevention.

Dr Teresa C. D'Oliveira
School of Psychology, University of East London
September 1, 2016

very interesting chapters covering the most important topics related to stress.
Technical language very well explained making the book very accessible

Dr Florbela Soares Teixeira
Education , Coventry University
June 2, 2016

excellent coverage of bioloical topics in stress

Dr Susan Wilbraham
Psychology , University of Cumbria
July 15, 2015

Very informative book clearly explaining the finner detail of the effects of stress. We incorporated some of this finner detail into the professional regulatory unit of the course

Miss Kelly McGrath
Animal Management and veterinary nursing, Sparsholt College Hampshire
July 6, 2015

was not appropriate to level of knowledge

Miss Kathryn Bould
Dental Institute, King's College London
July 2, 2015

A very informative text but a bit too physiological for our purposes. But I sure will recommend it to students interested in the physiological aspects of stress (and health).

Mr Peter Karlsson
Sch of Health & Social Sciences - HOS, Halmstad University
May 3, 2015

This is a really detailed and research-evidenced journey through the psychobiology of stress, and is one of the texts at the forefront of reporting on psychoneuroimmunology at an accessible level. It explicates what is know, identifies what may be inferred and demonstrates that some research may be interesting but inconclusive. By resisting the broad, but unsupported, sweep of the relationships between stress and physiology, and between "types" and stress reactions, this text explores individual differences and how they interact with stress to affect health outcomes. An invaluable text from foundation year to doctoral level, for all those interested in the psychological and physiological aspects of stress.

Mrs Hazel Chapman
Faculty of Health and Social Care, Chester University
March 31, 2015

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ISBN: 9781483347448
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