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Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners in All Classrooms

Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners in All Classrooms

September 2008 | 168 pages | Corwin
Schools are not able to provide specialized classrooms for all English learners, especially when several languages besides English are spoken by ELLs. While the ELL population continues to grow, most teachers are monolingual and have little or no training on how to teach these students. This book uses a model that was designed around the five CREDE (Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence) standards for effective pedagogy: (1) joint productive activity; (2) language learning; (3) contextualization; (4) rigorous curriculum; and (5) instruction conversations. These five standards correspond to the authors' first five principles. The sixth principle --engaging families of english language learners --has also been found to have a positive impact on students' academic success. The book includes an array of powerful examples taken from a diverse range of K - 12 settings. The examples provide clear illustrations of teaching strategies that support the authors' principles. K - 12 teachers will discover that while these principles are particularly effective when applied to English Learners, they will ultimately be of benefit to all learners.
1. Introduction
English Language Learners of All Kinds  
Language Learning: How Does It Happen?  
All Teachers as Teachers of English Language Learners  
A Look Back Is a Look Forward  
Overview of the Book  
Cast of Characters  
A Note for Readers  
2. Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners: The Instructional Model
The CREDE Five Pedagogy Standards  
The Model Enacted in Seventh Grade  
Reflection on Cori's Teaching  
Cori and the CREDE Standards  
Joint Productive Activity  
Language and Literacy  
Rigorous Curriculum  
Instructional Conversation  
This Seems Overwhelming: Can I Do It?  
Scaffolding the Five Standards  
3. Joint Productive Activity (JPA) and English Language Learners
Reflection on Vickie's Lesson  
Rationale/Definition of JPA  
Is This JPA? Indicators of Joint Productive Activity  
Classroom Culture  
The Juggling Act: Grouping and Scheduling of JPA  
Example of JPA in Study of Race and Racism  
Reflection on Justin's Teaching  
JPA in Middle School ESL: Learning From Our Mistakes  
Reflection on Jayne's Teaching  
Assessing JPA in Your Teaching  
Teaching Tips for JPA  
4. Contextualization and English Language Learners: Making Learning Meaningful
Reflection of Johanna's Teaching  
Meaning of Contextualization  
Are We Connecting? Indicators of Contextualization  
Examples of Contextualization  
Contextualization in Middle School Language Arts  
Contextualization in Kindergarten  
Contextualization in Fourth-Grade Science and Mathematics  
Reflection on Examples  
Assessing Contextualization of Lessons  
Teaching Tips  
5. Language and Literacy for ELLs
Rationale/definition of Developing Language and Literacy  
Indicators of Language and Literacy Teaching  
The Case for Home Language Development  
Reading Instruction and ELLs  
Georgia's Second Grade  
Mary's Fourth Grade  
Writing in Middle School  
Writing Across the Curriculum  
Tips for Language and Literacy Teachers  
Assessing Your Language and Literacy Teaching  
6. Engaging Students With Rigorous Curriculum: High Expectations for English Language Students
Meaning of Rigorous Curriculum  
Indicators of Rigorous Curriculum  
Examples of Rigorous Curriculum  
Rigorous Curriculum Enacted in Kindergarten  
Rigorous Curriculum Enacted in Middle Grades Language Arts  
Reflection on Examples  
Questions to Guide Planning  
Teaching Tips  
Assessing Your Rigorous Curriculum  
7. Instructional Conversation (IC)
Rationale and Definition of IC  
How Does IC Differ From Traditional Teaching?  
Beyond Discussion: Indicators of Instructional Conversation  
Assistance Through Good Questioning  
Think-Pair-Share Strategy  
Examples of IC  
Instructional Conversation in Middle School  
Instructional Conversation With Young Children  
Tips for Instructional Conversation  
Assessing Your IC  
8. Engaging Families of English Language Learners
Importance of Involving Families  
Successful Ways to Involve Families of English Language Learners  
Communicating With Families  
Involving Families in Classrooms  
Increasing Help at Home  
Engaging Families in Workshops and Other School Events  
Visiting in Students' Homes  
Challenges to Involving Families  
Tips for Engaging Families  
Assessing Your Family Involvement  
9. Conclusion
Beyond a Model Approach  
Compatible Views  
Development of CREDE Standards  
Preparation of Teachers and Teacher Educators  
Concluding Remarks  

"A highly accessible and practical resource for applying sociocultural theory to both pedagogy and parent involvement. It begins with theory, but then provides excellent examples of how the principles might be meaningfully applied in real classrooms."

Robert Rueda, Professor
University of Southern California

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