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Psychometrics
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Psychometrics
An Introduction

Third Edition


November 2017 | 568 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Using a meaning-based approach that emphasizes the “why” over the “how to,” Psychometrics: An Introduction provides thorough coverage of fundamental issues in psychological measurement. Author R. Michael Furr discusses traditional psychometric perspectives and issues including reliability, validity, dimensionality, test bias, and response bias as well as advanced procedures and perspectives including item response theory and generalizability theory. The substantially updated Third Edition includes broader and more in-depth coverage with new references, a glossary summarizing over 200 key terms, and expanded suggested readings consisting of highly relevant papers to enhance the book’s overall accessibility, scope, and usability for both instructors and students.

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Preface
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1: Psychometrics and the Importance of Psychological Measurement
Why Psychological Testing Matters to You

 
Observable Behavior and Unobservable Psychological Attributes

 
Psychological Tests: Definition and Types

 
Psychometrics

 
Challenges to Measurement in Psychology

 
The Importance of Individual Differences

 
But Psychometrics Goes Well Beyond "Differential" Psychology

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
PART I. BASIC CONCEPTS IN MEASUREMENT
 
Chapter 2: Scaling
Fundamental Issues With Numbers

 
Units of Measurement

 
Additivity and Counting

 
Four Scales of Measurement

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 3: Individual Differences and Correlations
The Nature of Variability

 
Importance of Individual Differences

 
Variability and Distributions of Scores

 
Quantifying the Association Between Distributions

 
Variance and Covariance for “Composite Variables”

 
Binary Items

 
Interpreting Test Scores

 
Test Norms

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 4: Test Dimensionality and Factor Analysis
Test Dimensionality

 
Factor Analysis: Examining the Dimensionality of a Test

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
PART II. RELIABILITY
 
Chapter 5: Reliability: Conceptual Basis
Overview of Reliability and Classical Test Theory

 
Observed Scores, True Scores, and Measurement Error

 
Variances in Observed Scores, True Scores, and Error Scores

 
Four Ways to Think of Reliability

 
Reliability and the Standard Error of Measurement

 
From Theory to Practice: Measurement Models and Their Implications for Estimating Reliability

 
Domain Sampling Theory

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 6: Empirical Estimates of Reliability
Alternate Forms Reliability

 
Test–Retest Reliability

 
Internal Consistency Reliability

 
Sample Homogeneity and Reliability Generalization

 
Reliability of Difference Scores

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 7: The Importance of Reliability
Applied Behavioral Practice: Evaluation of an Individual’s Test Score

 
Behavioral Research

 
Test Construction and Refinement

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
PART III. VALIDITY
 
Chapter 8: Validity: Conceptual Basis
What Is Validity?

 
The Importance of Validity

 
Validity Evidence: Test Content

 
Validity Evidence: Internal Structure of the Test

 
Validity Evidence: Response Processes

 
Validity Evidence: Associations With Other Variables

 
Validity Evidence: Consequences of Testing

 
Other Perspectives on Validity

 
Contrasting Reliability and Validity

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 9: Estimating and Evaluating Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence
A Construct's Nomological Network

 
Methods for Evaluating Convergent and Discriminant Validity

 
Factors Affecting a Validity Coefficient

 
Interpreting a Validity Coefficient

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
Notes

 
 
PART IV. THREATS TO PSYCHOMETRIC QUALITY
 
Chapter 10: Response Biases
Types of Response Biases

 
Methods for Coping With Response Biases

 
Response Biases, Response Sets, and Response Styles

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 11: Test Bias
Why Worry About Test Score Bias?

 
Detecting Construct Bias: Internal Evaluation of a Test

 
Detecting Predictive Bias: External Evaluation of a Test

 
Other Statistical Procedures

 
Test Fairness

 
Example: Is the SAT Biased in Terms of Race or Socioeconomic Status?

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
PART V. ADVANCED PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACHES
 
Chapter 12: Confirmatory Factor Analysis
On the Use of EFA and CFA

 
The Process of CFA for Analysis of a Scale’s Internal Structure

 
CFA and Reliability

 
CFA and Validity

 
CFA and Measurement Invariance

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 13: Generalizability Theory
Multiple Facets of Measurement

 
Generalizability, Universes, and Variance Components

 
G Studies and D Studies

 
Conducting and Interpreting Generalizability Theory Analysis: A One-Facet Design

 
Conducting and Interpreting Generalizability Theory Analysis: A Two-Facet Design

 
Other Measurement Designs

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Chapter 14: Item Response Theory and Rasch Models
Factors Affecting Responses to Test Items

 
IRT Measurement Models

 
Obtaining Parameter Estimates: A 1PL Example

 
Item and Test Information

 
Applications of IRT

 
Summary

 
Suggested Readings

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Subject Index
 
Author Index

For instructors