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Shoulder & Elbow

Shoulder & Elbow

Published in Association with British Elbow & Shoulder Society
Published in Association with New Zealand Shoulder Elbow Society (NZSES)
Published in Association with Shoulder Elbow Society of Australia (SESA)
Published in Association with South African Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons

eISSN: 17585740 | ISSN: 17585732 | Current volume: 16 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Quarterly
Shoulder & Elbow is devoted to the advancement of the science of diagnosis and management of shoulder and elbow disorders. The Journal publishes peer-reviewed original research articles and reviews related to shoulder and elbow surgery and rehabilitation that strive to: foster and advance the science and practice of shoulder and elbow disorders, standardize assessment, scoring of disability and nomenclature relevant to the shoulder and elbow, improve quality of care by encouraging the collection of scientific data and functional outcomes, promote and stimulate research and encourage international research collaboration, and cultivate international relationships in the field of shoulder and elbow care.This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Shoulder & Elbow is devoted to the advancement of the science of diagnosis and management of shoulder and elbow disorders. The Journal publishes peer-reviewed original research articles and reviews related to shoulder and elbow surgery and rehabilitation that strive to:

· Foster and advance the science and practice of shoulder and elbow disorders
· Standardize assessment, scoring of disability and nomenclature relevant to the shoulder and elbow
· Improve quality of care by encouraging the collection of scientific data and functional outcomes
· Promote and stimulate research and encourage international research collaboration
· Cultivate international relationships in the field of shoulder and elbow care

The Journal welcomes articles related to all aspects of shoulder and elbow surgery and rehabilitation including:

· Shoulder and elbow arthritis
· Impingement and rotator cuff disease
· Shoulder and elbow dislocation and instability
· Frozen shoulder
· Fractures of the shoulder and elbow
· Acromioclavicular dislocation and arthritis
· Tennis and golfers elbow
· Arthroscopic surgery
· Joint replacement surgery
· Basic science and research

Editorial Office Assistant
Stella Crank Bolton, UK
Michael Thomas Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Emeritus Editors
Reviews Editor
Rohit Kulkarni Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, UK
Associate Editors
Alison Armstrong University Hospitals of Leicester Trust, UK
Marcus Bateman University Hospitals of Derby & Burton, UK
Jaime Candal-Couto Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Ram Chidambaram MGM Healthcare, Chennai, India
David Clark Royal Derby Hospital, UK
Michel van den Bekerom OLVG, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Steve Drew University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust, UK
Taco Gosens St Elisabeth Hospital, Netherlands
Michael Hackl University Hospital Cologne, Germany
Stuart Hay The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, UK
Catherine Hewitt University of York, UK
Paul Jenkins Glasgow Royal Infirmary, UK
Steen Jensen Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark
David Limb Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, UK
Surena Namdari Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, USA
Ronald Navarro Kaiser Permanente Southern California, USA
Radhakant Pandey University Hospitals of Leicester, UK
Chris Peach University of Manchester, UK
Leon Rajah St Augustine's Hospital, Durban, S Africa
Amar Rangan The James Cook University Hospital, UK
Emma Salt University Hospitals of Derby & Burton, UK
Harvinder Singh University Hospitals of Leicester Trust, UK
Bernhard Tins The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, UK
Helen Tunnicliffe University Hospitals of Leicester, UK
Adam Watts Wrightington Hospital, UK
Derfel Williams The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, UK
David Woods Great Western Hospitals, Swindon, UK
Editorial Board
Lars Adolfsson Linkoping University Hospital, Sweden
David Annison South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Ashish Babhulkar Pune Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital, Pune, India
Jens Brox Oslo University Hospital, Norway
Clare Connor Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, UK
Anders Ekelund Capio St Gorans Hospital, Sweden
Angela Kedgley Imperial College, London, UK
Ben Kibler Shoulder Center of Kentucky, USA
Graham King St. Joseph's Health Centre, Canada
Joy MacDermid University of Western Ontario, Canada
Lori Michener University of Southern California, USA
George Murrell University of New South Wales, Australia
David Ring Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
Stephen Roche Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa
Markus Scheibel Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Shantanu Shahane Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK
Hiroyuki Sugaya Funabashi Orthopaedic Hospital, Japan
Tim Uhl University of Kentucky, USA
Jaap Willems International Knee and Joint Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • PubMed Central (PMC)
  • Scopus
  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Shoulder & Elbow

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Shoulder & Elbow will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.1.1. Declarations
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
      2.9 Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Shoulder & Elbow, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope

    1.2 Article Types

    The categories of article accepted for publication are original articles, reviews and editorials, all of which are submitted to peer review. An article is considered for publication on the assumption that its contents have not been submitted simultaneously to another journal, have not been accepted for publication elsewhere and have not already been published.

    Original articles
    Should be divided into sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion.

    Priority will be given to work that addresses a topic of current interest. For further advice on suitability please contact Stella Crank:

    Invited Editorials
    These should have 800-1000 words and up to ten references. A single author is preferred. Submissions may be subjected to peer review and the Editors retain the right to alter textual style.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. SAGE Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Shoulder & Elbow operates a strictly double blind peer review process in which the reviewer’s name is withheld from the author and, the author’s name from the reviewer (submissions must adhere to our guidelines to ensure anonymity). Each manuscript is reviewed by at least two referees. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, and an editorial decision is generally reached within 4-6 weeks of submission.

    Peer Review Process
    On submission of a manuscript for publication, the submission is checked for compliance with these author instructions. If the submission is complete, the Editor-in-Chief assesses the manuscript for suitability. A small percentage of manuscripts are rejected without peer review at this stage; for example, if the article type is inappropriate or if the subject matter is unsuitable for the Shoulder & Elbow readership or if the scientific and/or surgical merit of the paper is flawed (for example, if it is not ethical). All other articles are allocated to a specialist Associate Editor, who either selects relevant referees for double-blind peer-review (the referees and authors do not know the identity of each other) or consults with at least one other Editor before rejecting the manuscript without peer review (for the reasons outlined above).

    This ‘triage’ system of rejecting a small percentage of manuscripts without peer review serves two purposes. Firstly, quick decisions on papers unsuitable for Shoulder & Elbow facilitate submission to another Journal in a timely fashion and, secondly, the Journal’s most valuable asset – the referees – are not overloaded with manuscripts that will not be accepted for publication.

    Two referees are usually invited to comment on each submission; if the first two referee reports are in agreement with the Editor, a decision is made on the basis of two reports. When the opinions of the referees differ significantly, the manuscript is discussed by the Editors. When a decision has been reached this is communicated to the Author.

    The Editors’ decision is final unless there is proven to be an error in the process of manuscript evaluation or peer review. If you believe that there has been an error of process in the handling of your manuscript, please address your concerns to the Editorial Office at, quoting the manuscript submission number.

    If you are asked to provide the names of a peer who could be called upon to review your manuscript, please note that reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below: 

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the journal’s editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    2.1.1. Declarations

    Please read the Declarations guidelines for authors, available here.

    Declarations must include each of the below headings with the corresponding information. Please note that manuscripts which do not include these Declarations will be returned. These headings will be published at the end of every accepted manuscript, where one of these headings is not applicable please indicate as such under the heading.


    1. Conflicting interests
    2. Funding
    3. Informed consent 
    4. Ethical approval
    5. Guarantor
    6. Contributorship  
    7. Acknowledgements

    Example of a completed Declarations:
    Conflicting interests: MS is an employee of XXX. BF has received grants from XXX. Funding: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number XXX] Informed consent: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient(s) for their anonymized information to be published in this article. Ethical approval: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from *NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (APPROVAL NUMBER/ID)*.
    Guarantor: BF
    Contributorship: BF and NP researched literature and conceived the study. MS was involved in protocol development, gaining ethical approval, patient recruitment and data analysis. BF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript
    Acknowledgements: We would like to thank XXX XXXX for his assistance and guidance in this research. Please read the following information carefully for additional information regarding these declarations.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    • Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    • Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    • Approved the version to be published,
    • Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.


    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    Shoulder & Elbow requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    Please supply any funding acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Shoulder & Elbow to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    Shoulder & Elbow conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives

    2.9 Data

    SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

    Shoulder & Elbow requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office at  

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Shoulder & Elbow and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Shoulder & Elbow offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    4.4 Reference style

    Shoulder & Elbow adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. View the SAGE Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver EndNote output file

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Shoulder & Elbow is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    Submission Checklist

    • Ensure your manuscript text does not contain any direct reference to you or your co-Authors.
    • Upload the main text of your manuscript with the file designation Main Document. The primary title page should contain just the title and keywords.
    • Upload a secondary title page as a separate document. Use the file designation Supplementary Material Not for Review. The secondary title page should contain the article title and full names and address of all authors.

    Preferred file formats
    Preferred file formats for text and tables are .doc or .rtf. Figures should be .tiff or .eps. Please note: Shoulder & Elbow now accepts Microsoft 2007 documents so you can save your text as .docx. The following file extensions are still restricted: .shs, .zip, .exe, .com, .vbs and .pdf.

    Primary title page (submitted with main text of manuscript)
    This title page should just contain the title and keywords.

    Secondary Title page
    On this title page please state: (1) the title of the article; (2) the name and initials of each author; (3) the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed; (4) the name, postal and e-mail addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers of the author responsible for correspondence and to whom requests for reprints should be addressed; (5) sources of funding for research and/or publication; (6) the category in which the manuscript is being submitted (original article, review); and (7) whether the paper is based on a previous communication to a society or meeting (with full details).

    This must contain fewer than 200 words in a structured format. Background: state why the study was done, the main aim and the nature of the study (retrospective review, experimental study etc.). Methods: describe patients, laboratory material and other methods used. Results: state the main findings, including important numerical values. Discussion: state the main conclusions, highlighting controversial or unexpected observations.

    Main text
    The main text of the paper may have separate Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion sections (these sections may not be applicable to all article types, e.g. reviews). A short Acknowledgements paragraph may also be included. When quoting specific materials, equipment and proprietary drugs, the name and address of the manufacturer must be given in parentheses. Generic names should normally be used. Any data mentioned in the abstract or discussion must be presented in the results section of the main text.

    Tables and illustrations
    Submit each illustration as a separate file except compound figures e.g. 1a, 1b, 1c etc, which should be supplied as a single file. Type each table on a separate page with a brief title. Supply artwork at the intended size for printing. Line drawings are acceptable as clear black on white graphics and must be high quality. Use hatchings, not tints. All illustrations must be supplied at the correct resolution:

    • 1200 dpi (dots per inch) for black and white line art (simple bar graphs, etc.)
    • 300 dpi for halftones (black and white photographs)
    • 600 dpi for combination halftones (photographs that also contain line art such as labelling or thin lines)

    Label each illustration with the figure number and lead author’s name. Indicate the top of the illustration and a measure of magnification for photomicrographs. Include explanations of symbols and shading within the figure, use arrows to identify particular areas of interest. Survival curves must be accompanied by a table giving the actual numbers of patients involved and should be truncated when the numbers at risk are small; that is, when they are less than one-third of the starting figure. Include in the legends to illustrations, and the footnotes to tables, brief but comprehensive explanations of all the information presented.

    Supplemental Information
    Supplemental Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supplemental Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files.
    Supplemental Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supplemental Information in the desired final format.
    Supplemental files will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article.  For more information please refer to SAGE’s Guidelines for Authors on Supplemental Files.

    Avoid using abbreviations. Terms that are mentioned frequently may be abbreviated but only if this does not impair comprehension. Abbreviations must be used consistently and must be defined on first use.

    Numbers and units
    Provide absolute numbers always; percentages may be given in addition but never on their own (percentages are not acceptable for sample sizes less than 50). Use the decimal point, not a comma; for example 5.7. Use a space and not a comma after thousands and multiples thereof; for example 10 000. Use SI units (International System of Units) except for the measurement of blood pressure (mmHg).

    Statistics and design
    Set out clearly the objectives of the study; identify the primary and secondary hypotheses, the chosen end-points and justify the sample size with a power calculation. 

    Clearly describe methods used for analysis; methods not in common usage should be referenced. Report results of statistical tests by stating the value of the test statistic, the number of degrees of freedom and the P value. Actual P values should always be reported to three decimal places, especially when the result is not significant. The results of the primary analyses should be reported using confidence intervals instead of, or in addition to, P values.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Shoulder & Elbow editorial office as follows:

    Shoulder & Elbow 
    c/o Stella Crank
    Upper Limb Research Unit
    Wrightington Hospital, Appley Bridge
    Wigan, WN6 9EP, UK
    Tel: 01257 256 466
    Fax: 01257 256 466

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