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Business & Society

Business & Society

Founded at Roosevelt University

eISSN: 15524205 | ISSN: 00076503 | Current volume: 63 | Current issue: 6 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

Business & Society aims to be the leading, peer-reviewed outlet for scholarly work dealing specifically with the intersection of business and society. We publish research that develops, tests and refines theory, and which enhances our understanding of important societal issues and their relation to business.

The journal is built on the following aspirations:

Openness to diversity. We publish conceptual, empirical and normative research, based on a variety of disciplinary lenses and methodological approaches.

A review process that ensures scholarly excellence not simply conformity to the status quo. We aim to publish innovative work, which at times may deviate from the mainstream of management research by challenging assumptions and/or providing thought-provoking perspectives. However, it will always meet high standards of quality.

Timely decision making on submissions. Authors will be provided with decisions on the publishability of their manuscripts at the earliest possible occasion. Our goal is for the majority of published papers to have received a decision on publishability after the first revision has been evaluated.

Founded in 1960, Business & Society was the first journal exclusively dedicated to publishing research in the field of business and society. It is the official journal of the International Association of Business and Society.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Business & Society publishes new scholarship based on original research. The journal will consider a wide range of theoretical, empirical (quantitative and qualitative), normative, and methodological submissions. The journal publishes both full-length articles and shorter-length research notes. Commentary pieces and rejoinders are considered on an individual basis.

The scope of business and society scholarship is quite broad, but all papers should in a substantial way address the societal role, impacts and intersections of and with business. Relevant subjects include: business and global governance, business and public policy, business ethics, business-government relations, corporate governance, corporate political activity, corporate social performance, corporate social responsibility, corporate sustainability, environmental management, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, stakeholder management.

Hari Bapuji University of Melbourne
Colin Higgins Deakin University, Australia
Deputy Editors
Punit Arora City University of New York, USA
Nelarine Cornelius Queen Mary University of London, UK
Céline Louche Audencia Business School, France
Rajat Panwar Oregon State University, USA
Associate Editors
Bobby Banerjee University of London, UK
Maoliang Bu Nanjing University, China
Itziar Castello University of Surrey, UK
Charles Cho York University, Canada
Michael Cummings University of Arkansas, USA
Frederik Dahlmann University of Warwick, UK
Gopal Das Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, India
Laura Marie Edinger-Schons University of Mannheim, Germany
Michael Etter Kings College, UK
Naomi Gardberg Baruch College, USA
Verena Girshik Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Johanne Grosvold University of Bath, UK
Tobias Hahn ESADE, Spain
Laura Illia University of Fribourg, Switzerland
Arun Kumar Kings College London, UK
Jegoo Lee University of Rhode Island, USA
Danae Manika Brunel University, UK
Alfred Marcus University of Minnesota, USA
Emilio Marti Erasmus University, Netherlands
Sébastien Mena Hertie School, Germany
Barry M. Mitnick University of Pittsburgh, USA
Alan Muller University of Groningen, Netherlands
Collins Ntim Southampton Business School, UK
K Praveen Parboteeah University of Wisconsin Whitewater, USA
Simon Pek University of Victoria, Canada
Israr Qureshi Australian National University, Australia
Hussain Rammal University of Adelaide, Australia
Thomas Roulet University of Cambridge, UK
Sukhbir Sandhu University of South Australia, Australia
Dennis Schoeneborn Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Judith Schrempf-Stirling University of Geneva, Switzerland
Elke Schüßler Leuphana University Lüneburg, Germany
Lea Stadtler Grenoble Ecole de Management, France
Devi Vijay Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, India
Christian Voegtlin Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland
Editorial Board
Joao Albino-Pimentel University of South Carolina, USA
Paolo Antonetti NEOMA Business School, France
Joshua Ault Thunderbird School of Global Management, USA
Shawn Berman University of New Mexico, USA
Frances Bowen Queen Mary University of London, UK
Steven Brammer University of Bath, UK
Jonathan Bundy Arizona State University, USA
Cynthia E. Clark Bentley University, USA
Philip L. Cochran Indiana University, USA
Nicolas Dahan California State University, Monterey Bay, USA
Peter Darke York University, Canada
Gaston de la Reyes George Washington School of Business, USA
Krzystof Dembek Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Nikolay A. Dentchev HUBrussel and Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
Robbin Derry University of Lethbridge, Canada
Silvia Dorado-Banaloche University of Massachusetts, USA
Paul Dunn Brock University, Canada
Heather Elms American University, USA
Fabrizio Ferraro IESE Business School, Spain
Adam Fremeth Western University, Canada
Jeffrey Frooman University of New Brunswick, Canada
Markus Giesler York University, Canada
Sarah Glozer University of Bath, UK
Jean-Pascal Gond Bayes Business School, UK
Jennifer Griffin Loyola University, USA
Wencke Gwozdz University of Giessen, Germany
Michael Hadani St. Mary’s College of California, USA
Rüdiger Hahn Heinrich-Heine-University of Düsseldorf, Germany
Olga Hawn University of North Carolina, USA
Irene Henriques Schulich School of Business, York University, Canada
Vanessa Hill University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA
Bryan Husted EGADE, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico
Ming Jia Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Michael Johnson-Cramer Ithaca College, USA
Aloysius Newenham- Kahindi University of Victoria
Ans Kolk University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Daniel Korschun Drexel University, USA
Arno Kourula University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Lucas Amaral Lauriano IESEG France
David Levy University of Massachusetts, USA
Haiying Lin Northern Illinois University, USA
Martina Linnenluecke University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Jeanne M. Logsdon University of New Mexico, USA
Karen Maas Open University, Netherlands
Michael Maloni Kennesaw State University, USA
François Maon IÉSEG School of Management, France
Valentina Marano Northeastern University, USA
Jose Carlos Marques University of Ottawa, Canada
Daniel Matisoff Georgia Tech University, USA
Dirk Matten York University, Canada
Daina Mazutis University of Ottawa, Canada
Lauren McCarthy Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Raza Mir William Paterson University, USA
Ronald Mitchell Texas Tech University, USA
Dirk Moosmayer Nottingham University, UK
Mette Morsing Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden
Ben Neville University of Melbourne, Australia
Ernesto Noronha Indian Institute of Management, India
Amy O'Connor University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, USA
Tricia Olsen University of Denver, USA
Guido Palazzo University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Karen Paul Florida International University, USA
John Peloza University of Kentucky, USA
Kam Phun Simon Fraser University, Canada
Jonatan Pinske University of Manchester, UK
Lutz Preuss KEDGE Business School, France
Patricia Gabaldon Quinones IE Business School, Spain
Cristian Ramirez Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile
Andreas Rasche Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Jorge Rivera The George Washington University, USA
Lori Ryan San Diego State University, USA
Sybille Sachs University of Applied Sciences in Business and Administration, Zurich, Switzerland
Andreas Scherer University of Zurich, Switzerland
Doug Schuler Rice University, USA
Ali Shahzad James Madison University, USA
Mark Sharfman University of Oklahoma, USA
Christine Shropshire Arizona State University
Michelle Shumate Northwestern University, USA
Mika Skippari University of Tampere, Finland
Vivek Soundararajan University of Bath, UK
Robert Sroufe Duquesne University, USA
Valerie Swaen Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
Peter Tashman University of Massachusetts –Lowell, USA
Hannah Trittin-Ulbrich University of Luneburg, Germany
Pushpika Vaishwanathan University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Michael Valente York University, Canada
Harry van Burren University of St. Thomas, USA
Daniel Wager Lazaridis School of Business & Economics, Canada
James Weber Duquesne University, USA
Timothy Werner University of Texas-Austin, USA
Glen Whelan ESG UQAM, Canada
Christopher Wickert Vrije Universiteit
Alberto Willi IAE Business School, Argentina
Donna J. Wood University of Northern Iowa, USA
Juelin Yin Sun Yat-sen University, China
Blog Editor
Sarah Stephen University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Production Editor
Virginia Gerde School of Business and Accounting, Furman University, USA
Social Media Editor
José-Carlos García-Rosell University of Oulu, Finland
Former Editors
Jill Brown Bentley University, USA
Andrew Crane School of Management, University of Bath, UK
Frank de Bakker IÉSEG School of Management, France
Gilbert R. Ghez Roosevelt University, USA
Irene Henriques Schulich School of Business, York University, Canada
Bryan Husted EGADE, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico
Thomas M. Jones University of Washington, USA
Douglas F. Lamont DePaul University, USA
Jeanne M. Logsdon University of New Mexico, USA
John F. Mahon University of Maine, Orono, USA
Ann B. Matasar Roosevelt University, USA
Dirk Matten York University, Canada
Kathleen Rehbein Marquette University, USA
Brian Reynolds Roosevelt University, USA
Andrew Spicer University of South Carolina, USA
Richard Thain University of Plymouth, UK
Jennifer L. Wagner Roosevelt University, USA
Steven L. Wartick University of Northern Iowa, USA
James B. Webber Independent Management Consultant, New Hampshire
Paul Wellen Roosevelt University, USA
Bismarck S. Williams Roosevelt University, USA
Duane Windsor Rice University, USA
Donna J. Wood University of Pittsburgh, USA
Brandel L. Works Roosevelt University, USA
Russell E. Yerkes Roosevelt University, USA
Consulting Editors
Frank de Bakker IÉSEG School of Management, France
Gokhan Ertug University of Adelaide, Australia
Mette Morsing University of Oxford
Kathleen Rehbein Marquette University, USA
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  • 1. Original research

    Business & Society only publishes original research. A manuscript submitted to Business & Society should not have been published, in full or in part, in another journal, nor may manuscripts be submitted to another journal during the review process without notifying the editors of intent to withdraw. Duplicate submission is grounds for immediate rejection and if necessary additional sanctions. Prior publication in conference proceedings, however, is acceptable. Where your data has been utilised in other published studies, please include details in your covering letter. This sample letter sets out the information required.

    This journal does not accept preprint submissions.

    2. Preparation of manuscripts

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines to authors. Manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    a. Length

    Full length manuscripts should be between 7000-12,000 words in length at initial submission, including tables, figures and references. Research notes should be no more than 5000 words. Manuscripts outside of these guidelines will be returned to the authors.

    Commentaries should be under 1,500 words. The editorial process for commentaries is different from that is followed for research manuscripts. Please see specific guidelines here. Commentaries not following this procedure will be returned to the authors.

    b. Title, Keywords and Abstracts

    The title, keywords (3-5) and abstract (ca. 150 words) are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting Sage's Journal Author Gateway Guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    c. Formatting

    Manuscripts should be double spaced, with 1-inch margins, in 12-point Times New Roman. New paragraphs should be indented, except those immediately following first or second level headings.

    d. Headings

    Main or First Level headings should be used to designate the major sections of the article. Initial headings, such as ‘Introduction’ are unnecessary. and be formatted as follows:

    First Level Headings

    First level headings should be typed in bold font with left margin. Major words should be capitalized

    Second Level Headings

    Second level headings should be typed in italic font with left margin. Major words should be capitalized

    Third level headings. Third level headings should be typed in bold, italic font, end with a full stop, and be part of a standard indented paragraph. All text should be in lower case.

    e. Referencing and Style

    Submissions should be 7th edition American Psychological Association (APA) compliant.

    (i) In-text citations take the form (Windsor & Windsor, 1999, pp. 31-32).

    (ii) Specific standards are used for the reference list (which should be in alphabetical order at the end before any tables, charts, and figures). Examples are provided below for precise guidance (punctuation and italics matter):

    Journal articles

    Orlitzky, M., & Benjamin, J. D. (2001). Corporate social performance and firm risk: A meta-analytic review. Business & Society, 40(4), 369-387.

    Books (Monographs)

    Preston, L. E., & Windsor, D. (1997). The rules of the game in the global economy: Policy regimes for international business (2nd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. [So typically country or U.S. state, except New York.]

    Books (Edited volumes)

    Sukin, S., & DiMaggio, P. (Eds.). (1990). Structures of capital. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Book chapters

    Mintz, B., & Schwartz, M. (1990). Capital flows and the process of financial hegemony. In S. Zukin & P. DiMaggio (Eds.), Structures of capital (pp. 203-226). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Working papers

    Scheessele, R. (2002). Black and White disparities in subprime mortgage refinance lending (Working Paper No. HF-014). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

    Online sources

    Rubin, R. E., & Rubinger, M. (2004, December 4). Don’t let banks turn their backs on the poor [Op-ed]. New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2007, from http//... [with exact url address for the item].

    f. Tables and Figures

    Tables and figures should be on separate pages at the end of the manuscript, and a note should be placed in the text to indicate their approximate position, e.g. Table X about here. All tables and figures should be numbered separately: Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. and Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Figures should be suitable for direct reproduction in black and white. Please keep tints to a minimum.

    3. Anonymisation

    Any self-citations that may compromise the anonymize review process must be avoided. In such cases, please either replace with (Author, Year) or avoid entirely for subsequent insertion.

    4. English language

    Manuscripts with deficits in the use of the English language will be returned to authors. Non-native speakers should make use of a native speaker as a copy editor. Authors who want to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider utilizing the services of SPi, a non-affiliated company that offers Professional Editing Services to authors of journal articles in the areas of science, technology, medicine or the social sciences. SPi specializes in editing and correcting English-language manuscripts written by authors with a primary language other than English. Visit for more information about SPi’s Professional Editing Services, pricing, and turn-around times, or to obtain a free quote or submit a manuscript for language polishing.

    5. Acknowledgments

    Acknowledgements should not appear anywhere in the manuscript, but can be included in the letter to the editor. Upon acceptance, all acknowledgements should be included in the final version of the manuscript and should appear first at the end of the article prior to any notes and references.

    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), Business & Society additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit Funding Acknowledgement on the Sage Journal Author Gateway for funding acknowledgement guidelines.

    6. Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the Sage Journal Author Gateway

    7. Submission

    a. Online submission

    Manuscripts must be submitted electronically at where authors will be required to set up an online account in the system powered by ScholarOne

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    All papers must be submitted via the online system. If you would like to discuss your paper prior to submission, please contact the editors at

    b. Documents to be submitted

    The submission should consist of two separate Microsoft Word documents:

    (i) a manuscript without title page and without author identification information of any kind, and containing an abstract and keywords;

    (ii) a title page with full author contact information. These documents are converted by the online submission system to PDF format (with line numbering). PDF conversion typically eliminates WORD properties with author identification information, but submitters should use security (tools-options) and properties (file) devices to eliminate identification information even in advance of submission. A cover letter is not necessary, but can be submitted as a third document


    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    9. Sage Choice

    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.


    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of [X] peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    Sage Choice

    If you or your funder wishes your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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