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Introduction to Criminology
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Introduction to Criminology
Why Do They Do It?

Third Edition

Other Titles in:
Criminology (General)

January 2020 | 552 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Introduction to Criminology: Why Do They Do It? offers a contemporary and integrated discussion of key criminological theories to help students understand crime in the 21st century. Focusing on why offenders commit crimes, authors Pamela J. Schram and Stephen G. Tibbetts apply established theories to real-life examples to explain criminal behavior. Coverage of violent and property crimes is included throughout theory chapters so that students can clearly understand the application of theory to criminal behavior. The Third Edition includes new and expanded coverage of timely topics, such as victimization, measuring crime, multicide, gun control, and hate crimes.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Criminology
Introduction

 
What Is a Crime?

 
What Are Criminology and Criminal Justice?

 
The Consensus and Conflict Perspectives of Crime

 
The Criminal Justice System

 
Criminological Theory

 
Victimology

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 2: Measuring Crime
Introduction

 
Data From Law Enforcement Agencies

 
Data From Victims of Crime: The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

 
Data From Self-Report Surveys

 
Additional Approaches to Collecting Data

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 3: The Classical School of Criminological Thought
Introduction

 
Pre-Classical Perspectives on Crime and Punishment

 
The Age of Enlightenment

 
The Classical School of Criminology

 
The Impact of Beccaria’s Work on Other Theorists

 
The Neoclassical School of Criminology

 
The Decline of Classical/Neoclassical Theory

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 4: Contemporary Classical and Deterrence Research
Introduction

 
The Rebirth of Deterrence Theory and Contemporary Research

 
Rational Choice Theory

 
Routine Activities Theory

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 5: Early Positivism: Biological Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Early Biological Theories of Behavior

 
Lombroso’s Theory of Atavism and Born Criminals

 
After Lombroso: The IQ-Testing Era

 
Body-Type Theory: Sheldon’s Model of Somatotyping

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 6: Modern Biosocial Perspectives of Criminal Behavior
Introduction

 
Nature Versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of Genetics and Environment

 
Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

 
Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

 
Brain Injuries

 
Central Versus Autonomic Nervous System Activity

 
Biosocial Approaches to Explaining Criminal Behavior

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 7: Psychological/Trait Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Early Psychological Theorizing Regarding Criminal Behavior

 
Modern Psychological Perspectives of Criminality

 
Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 8: Social Structure Theories of Crime I: Early Development and Strain Models of Crime
Introduction

 
Early European Theorists of Social Structure: Comte, Guerry, and Quetelet

 
Durkheim and the Concept of Anomie

 
Merton’s Strain Theory

 
Variations of Merton’s Strain Theory

 
General Strain Theory

 
Summary of Strain Theories

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 9: Social Structure Theories of Crime II: Social Disorganization and Subcultures
Introduction

 
The Ecological School and the Chicago School of Criminology

 
Shaw and McKay’s Theory of Social Disorganization

 
Cultural and Subcultural Theories of Crime

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 10: Social Process and Control Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Learning Theories

 
Control Theories

 
A General Theory of Crime: Low Self-Control

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 11: Labeling Theory and Conflict/Marxist/Radical Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Labeling Theory

 
Conflict Perspectives

 
Additional Critical Theories

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 12: Feminist Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
A Brief History of Feminism in the United States

 
Feminist Perspectives on Gender

 
Traditional Theories of Female Crime

 
The Liberation Thesis

 
Power-Control Theory

 
Feminist Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Behavior

 
Critiques of Feminist Theories

 
Policies Based on Feminist Theories of Crime

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 13: Developmental/Life-Course Perspectives on Criminality
Introduction

 
Basic Concepts and Early Developmental Theory

 
Antidevelopmental Theory: Low-Self-Control Theory

 
Sampson and Laub’s Developmental Model

 
Moffitt’s Developmental Taxonomy

 
Thornberry’s Interactional Model of Offending

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 14: White-Collar Crime, Organized Crime, and Cybercrime
Introduction

 
White-Collar Crime

 
Organized Crime

 
Cybercrime

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 15: Hate Crimes, Mass Murder, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Introduction

 
Hate Crimes

 
Multicide

 
Terrorism

 
Homeland Security

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Chapter 16: Drugs and Crime
Introduction

 
Depressants

 
Narcotics

 
Stimulants

 
Other Commonly Abused Drugs

 
Trends of Drug Use

 
The Link Between Drugs and Crime

 
Modern Policies Related to Reducing Drug Use

 
Policy Recommendations

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Resources

 
 
Glossary
 
Notes
 
Index

Supplements

Student Resource Site

edge.sagepub.com/schram3e

 

The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

Instructor Resource
edge.sagepub.com/schram3e


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"Schram and Tibbetts provide a thorough introduction to the study of crime and deviance. A must-read for anyone seriously interested in learning about the causes and correlates of criminal behavior."

Eric J. Connolly
Sam Houston State University

"The text has supplemental material as well as case studies to back up the content. It is easy to read and students will like the colorful print and text type."

Christen C. Shea
Polk State College