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International Relations since 1945
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International Relations since 1945
East, West, North, South

Eighth Edition


September 2017 | 328 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Introducing the key events and developments in international relations, this authoritative and engaging book provides students with a clear understanding of the contemporary issues in international politics. Putting the foundations and contexts of International Relations at your fingertips, this Eighth Edition:

  • Provides an account of the world as it has evolved up to 1945
  • Extended coverage of topics including population, gender and the environment
  • Includes expanded material on the theory of international relations
  • Includes new learning resources, including an ‘alternative perspectives’ box in each chapter
  • Supports research with fully updated and annotated further reading lists

Praised for its detail and tone, International Relations since 1945 is ideal for providing undergraduates with a historical background as they approach international relations.

 
1 The New World
The Rise and Fall of Great Powers

 
The World in 1945

 
The Literature

 
 
2 The Cold War in Europe, 1945–1949
Political science and history

 
Some Old and New Theories about the Cold War

 
Some Structural Explanations for the Cold War

 
Who Acted Where?

 
US Policy

 
Soviet Policy

 
The Problem of Germany

 
Motivating Forces behind US and Soviet Policies

 
The United States

 
The Soviet Union

 
The Literature

 
 
3 The Cold War Becomes Global, 1945–1962
The United States, the Soviet Union, and Asia, 1945–1950

 
The Civil War in China

 
Other Countries in Asia

 
Signs of Re-evaluation in the Superpowers’ Asian Policies

 
The Korean War

 
Changes in US Policy in Asia

 
The Soviet Union Tries to Play a Global Role

 
A New Policy in Asia and the Middle East

 
A New Policy in Africa

 
The Cold War Reaches Latin America

 
The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Third World: A Comparison

 
The Literature

 
 
4 Detente Between East and West, 1962–1975
Signs of Detente during the 1950s

 
The Policy of Detente, 1962–1975

 
Agreements and Contact between East and West

 
Reasons for Detente

 
Detente and Geographic Expansion of the East–West Conflict

 
Respect for Each Other’s Vital Regions

 
The Grey Zones between East and West

 
The Middle East, 1967–1975

 
The Vietnam War

 
The Literature

 
 
5 Renewed Tension Between East and West, 1975–1984
The Soviet Union: A New Globalism

 
The United States: Reaction to Detente

 
The Literature

 
 
6 The End of the Cold War, 1984–1990
Different Theories about the End of the Cold War

 
What Happened – and Why?

 
The Literature

 
 
7 Major Powers and Local Conflicts after the Cold War, 1990–2016
The Major Powers in the New World

 
Hopes for Peace – and the Reality of Local Conflicts

 
11 September 2001, Afghanistan and Iraq

 
Barack Obama and the Greater Middle East

 
The Literature

 
 
8 The Arms Race, 1945–2016
Perspective and Motivating Forces

 
Hiroshima, Atomic Weapons, and Conventional Forces, 1945–1949

 
The US Turnabout, 1949–1953

 
New Directions in US and Soviet Defense Policies

 
The ‘New Look’

 
The ‘New Look’ in the Soviet Union

 
Kennedy, McNamara, and Flexible Response

 
The Soviet Build-up

 
The US Reaction

 
The First Phase: Prior to 1973–1974

 
The Second Phase: The Years up to 1984

 
Cooperation, Disarmament and Rearmament Once More

 
The Smaller Nuclear States

 
The Literature

 
 
9 The United States and Western Europe, 1945–2016
Expansion by Invitation, 1945–1950

 
European Integration, 1945–1973

 
Explanations for the US Stance

 
US–European Relations, 1950–1973

 
Cooperation Prior to 1962

 
Political and Military Controversy, 1962–1973

 
Economic Relations, 1962–1973

 
The United States and Western Europe after 1973: New Tensions

 
Expansion and Integration of the EC/EU

 
From the Year of Europe to German Reuni?cation

 
The US and the EU from Clinton to Donald Trump

 
The Literature

 
 
10 The Soviet Union/Russia and the (formerly) Communist Countries, 1945–2016
Expansion and Conformism, 1945–1953

 
The Reins are Loosened (1953–1956) and Tightened (1956–1958)

 
The Revolts in Poland and Hungary in 1956

 
The Split between the Soviet Union and China

 
From Cooperation to Armed Struggle

 
Explanations for the Split

 
Soviet Relations with Eastern Europe, 1958–1985

 
Czechoslovakia – 1968

 
Developments in Poland

 
The Soviet Union and the Communist Movement Elsewhere

 
The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe

 
The Fall of the Soviet Union

 
Developments in Russia and Eastern Europe After the Fall of Communism

 
The Literature

 
 
11 The Rise of East Asia
The United States and Japan, 1945–2016

 
1945–1960: Occupation and US Dominance

 
1960–1990: Economic Strength and Greater Political Independence

 
1990–2016: Economic Problems and Political Uncertainty

 
The Sino–Soviet–US Triangle Since 1972

 
East Asia in the New World System

 
The Literature

 
 
12 Decolonization
Changes on the International Level

 
The National Level: Changes within the Colonial Powers

 
British Policies

 
French Policies

 
Belgium and Portugal

 
Why Different Attitudes?

 
The Local Level: Independence Movements Grow Stronger

 
The Three Stages

 
Economic and Cultural Development

 
The Influence of International Events

 
The Nonaligned States in World Politics

 
The Literature

 
 
13 Economic Relations Between North and South, 1945–2016
Aid and Trade, 1945–2013

 
1945–1955

 
1955–1964

 
1964–1981

 
1981–2000

 
2000–2016

 
The Soviet Union and North–South Issues

 
The Literature

 
 
14 Two Theories on Development and Under-development
The Liberalist and the Structuralist Schools

 
Discussion of Some Issues Central to Economic Development

 
The North’s Development–The South’s Under-development?

 
The Multinational Corporations

 
Raw Materials and Processed Goods

 
The Question of Dependence

 
Population, Gender, Environment

 
Production of Crude Oil

 
Why Poverty?

 
The Literature

 
 
15 Globalization and Fragmentation
Globalization

 
Regionalism

 
Fragmentation

 
Why both Globalization and Fragmentation?

 
East, West, North, South

 
Superpowers, States and Individuals

 
The Literature

 
 
16 Conclusion: The Future
Old and New Superpowers

 
What will happen to the International System?

 
The Literature

 
Index

 

East, West, North, South is a classic overview of international politics since the Second World War, and Geir Lundestad is one of the contemporary historians who are extensively read by peace researchers and international relations scholars. Always solidly grounded in empirical research and detail, his ability to provide sweeping analyses has great scholarly appeal among social scientists.

Henrik Urdal
Director, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)

Geir Lundestad’s book offers a thorough and very engaging account of world history since the end of World War II.  It combines rich historical detail with important theoretical perspectives on a broad range of issues and will therefore be essential reading for students and scholars of international relations.

Martin Senn
Universität Innsbruck

This new edition once again provides a coherent and accessible coverage of international relations since 1945 that is now better than ever. Reflecting years of research and experience, Geir Lundestad has penned a masterpiece that is a must-read for students and scholars interested in how contemporary global politics came about.

Simon Koschut
Freie Universitat

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter One: The New World


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