You are here

Essentials of Human Behavior
Share

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment, and the Life Course

Second Edition
Additional resources:


August 2016 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Essentials of Human Behavior combines Elizabeth D. Hutchison’s two-volume Dimensions of Human Behavior to present a multidimensional framework for understanding human behavior. Integrating person, environment, and the life course, this best-selling text leverages its hallmark case studies and balanced breadth and depth of coverage to help readers apply theory and general social work knowledge to unique practice situations. Now in four color and available with an interactive eBook, the Second Edition features a streamlined organization, the latest research, whiteboard animations (view sample), and original SAGE video to provide the most engaging introduction available to human behavior.

Interactive eBook also available—FREE when bundled with the new edition!


Your students save when you bundle the new edition with the interactive eBook version. Order using bundle ISBN 978-1-5063-6325-7.
Learn more.

Take a Tour of the Interactive eBook

 
Case Studies
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
PART I- A MULTIDIMENSIONAL, MULTITHEORETICAL APPROACH FOR MULTIFACETED SOCIAL WORK
 
CHAPTER 1- HUMAN BEHAVIOR: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACH
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study: Manisha and Her Changing Environments

 
Human Behavior: Individual and Collective

 
A Multidimensional Approach

 
Personal Dimensions

 
Environmental Dimensions

 
Diversity, Inequality, and the Pursuit of Social Justice: A Global Perspective

 
Diversity

 
Inequality

 
The Pursuit of Social Justice

 
Knowing and Doing

 
Knowledge About the Case

 
Knowledge About the Self

 
Values and Ethics

 
Scientific Knowledge: Theory and Research

 
Theory

 
Empirical Research

 
Critical Use of Theory and Research

 
A Word of Caution

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 2- THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study: Intergenerational Stresses in the McKinley Family

 
Multiple Perspectives for a Multidimensional Approach

 
Systems Perspective

 
Conflict Perspective

 
Exchange and Choice Perspective

 
Social Constructionist Perspective

 
Psychodynamic Perspective

 
Developmental Perspective

 
Social Behavioral Perspective

 
Humanistic Perspective

 
The Merits of Multiple Perspectives

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
PART II- THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF THE PERSON
 
CHAPTER 3- THE BIOLOGICAL PERSON
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 3.1: Cheryl’s Brain Injury

 
Case Study 3.2: A Diabetes Diagnosis for Bess

 
Case Study 3.3: Melissa’s HIV Diagnosis

 
Case Study 3.4: Lifestyle Changes for Thomas

 
Case Study 3.5: Mary and Her Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

 
Case Study 3.6: Juan and Belinda’s Reproductive Health

 
An Integrative Approach for Understanding the Intersection of Interior Biological Health and Illness and Exterior Environment Factors

 
A Look at Six Interior Environment Systems

 
Nervous System

 
Endocrine System

 
Immune System

 
Cardiovascular System

 
Musculoskeletal System

 
Reproductive System

 
Exterior Socioeconomic Environment and Interior Health Environment

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 4- THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSON
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study: The Premed Student

 
Cognition and Emotion

 
Theories of Cognition

 
Cognitive Theory

 
Information Processing Theory

 
Social Learning Theory

 
Theory of Multiple Intelligences

 
Theories of Moral Reasoning

 
Theories of Cognition in Social Work Practice

 
Theories of Emotion

 
Physiological Theories of Emotion

 
Psychological Theories of Emotion

 
Psychoanalytic Theory

 
Ego Psychology

 
Attribution Theory: A Cognitive Perspective

 
Theory of Emotional Intelligence

 
Social Theories of Emotion

 
Theories of Emotion in Social Work Practice

 
Cognitive and Emotional “Disorders”

 
The Self

 
The Self in Relationships

 
Relational Theory

 
Attachment Theory

 
Impact of Early Nurturing on Development

 
Feminist Theories of Relationships

 
Social Identity Theory

 
The Concept of Stress

 
Three Categories of Psychological Stress

 
Stress and Crisis

 
Traumatic Stress

 
Vulnerability to Stress

 
Coping and Adaptation

 
Biological Coping

 
Psychological Coping

 
Coping Styles

 
Coping and Traumatic Stress

 
Social Support

 
Virtual Support

 
How Social Support Aids Coping

 
How Social Workers Evaluate Social Support

 
Normal and Abnormal Coping

 
The Medical (Psychiatric) Perspective

 
Psychological Perspectives

 
The Sociological Approach: Deviance

 
The Social Work Perspective: Social Functioning

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 5- THE SPIRITUAL PERSON
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 5.1: Caroline’s Challenging Questions

 
Case Study 5.2: Naomi’s Health Crisis

 
Case Study 5.3: Matthew’s Faith Journey

 
Case Study 5.4: Trudy’s Search for the Sacred

 
Case Study 5.5: Leon’s Two Worlds

 
Case Study 5.6: Jean-Joseph’s Serving the Spirits

 
Case Study 5.7: Beth’s Framework for Living

 
The Spiritual Dimension

 
The Meaning of Spirituality

 
Spirituality in the United States and Globally

 
Transpersonal Theories of Human Development

 
Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development

 
Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness

 
Summary and Critique of Fowler’s and Wilber’s Theories

 
The Role of Spirituality in Social Work

 
Spirituality and Human Diversity

 
Race and Ethnicity

 
Sex and Gender

 
Sexual Orientation

 
Other Aspects of Diversity

 
Spirituality and the Human Experience

 
Problems in Living

 
Individual and Collective Well-Being

 
Spiritual Assessment

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
PART III- THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
 
CHAPTER 6- CULTURE AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 6.1: Stan and Tina at Community High School

 
Case Study 6.2: Ben Watson’s Changing Experience With the Physical Environment

 
The Challenge of Defining Culture

 
Changing Ideas About Culture and Human Behavior

 
Some Important Culture Concepts

 
A Postmodern View of Culture

 
Cultural Maintenance, Change, and Adaptation

 
Common Sense, Customs, and Traditions

 
Immigration

 
Processes of Cultural Change

 
The Relationship Between the Physical Environment and Human Behavior

 
Stimulation Theories

 
Control Theories

 
Privacy

 
Personal Space

 
Territoriality

 
Crowding

 
Behavior Settings Theories

 
Ecocritical Theories

 
The Natural Environment

 
Benefits and Costs of Human Interaction With the Natural Environment

 
Environmental Justice and Ecological Justice

 
The Built Environment

 
Technology

 
Healing Environments

 
Place Attachment

 
Homelessness

 
Accessible Environments for Persons With Disabilities

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 7- FAMILIES
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study: The Sharpe Family’s Postdeployment Adjustment

 
Family Defined

 
The Family in Historical Perspective

 
Theoretical Perspectives for Understanding Families

 
Psychodynamic Perspective and Families

 
Family Systems Perspective

 
Feminist Perspective and Families

 
Family Stress and Coping Perspective

 
Family Resilience Perspective

 
Diversity in Family Life

 
Diversity in Family Structures

 
Nuclear Families

 
Extended Families

 
Cohabiting Heterosexual Couples

 
Couples With No Children

 
Lone-Parent Families

 
Stepfamilies

 
Same-Sex Partner Families

 
Military Families

 
Economic and Cultural Diversity

 
Economic Diversity

 
Cultural Diversity

 
Immigrant Families

 
Challenges to Family Life

 
Family Violence

 
Divorce

 
Substance Abuse

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 8- SMALL GROUPS, FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMUNITIES
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 8.1: The Sexuality and Gender Group at a Women’s Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

 
Case Study 8.2: Changing Leadership at Beacon Center

 
Case Study 8.3: Filipina Domestic Workers Creating Transnational Communities

 
Small Groups in Social Work

 
Virtual Groups

 
Small Group Structure, Composition, and Processes

 
Theories of Group Processes

 
Psychodynamic Theory

 
Symbolic Interaction Theory

 
Status Characteristics and Expectation States Theory

 
Exchange Theory

 
Self-Categorization Theory

 
Formal Organization Defined

 
Perspectives on Formal Organizations

 
Rational Perspective

 
The Ideal-Type Bureaucracy

 
Scientific Management

 
Human Relations Theory

 
Management by Objectives (MBO)

 
Decision-Making Theory

 
Systems Perspective

 
Political Economy Model

 
Learning Organization Theory

 
Interactional/Interpretive Perspective

 
Social Action Model

 
Organizational Culture Model

 
Managing Diversity Model

 
Critical Perspective

 
Organizations as Multiple Oppressions

 
Nonhierarchical Organizations

 
Technology and Social Service Organizations

 
Community: Territorial and Relational

 
Theoretical Approaches to Community

 
Contrasting Types Approach

 
Spatial Arrangements Approach

 
Social Systems Approach

 
Social Capital Approach

 
Conflict Approach

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 9- SOCIAL STRUCTURE, SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS, AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: GLOBAL AND NATIONAL
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 9.1: Leticia Renteria’s Struggle to Make It in the United States

 
Case Study 9.2: Fighting for a Living Wage

 
Patterns of Social Life

 
Contemporary Trends in Global and U.S. Social Institutions

 
Trends in the Government and Political Institution

 
Trends in the Economic Institution

 
Trends in the Educational Institution

 
Trends in the Health Care Institution

 
Trends in the Social Welfare Institution

 
Trends in the Religious Institution

 
Trends in the Mass Media Institution

 
Theories of Social Inequality

 
The Contemporary Debate

 
Structural Determinism Versus Human Agency

 
Social Movements: A Definition

 
Perspectives on Social Movements

 
Political Opportunities Perspective

 
Openness of the Political System

 
Stability of Political Alignments

 
Availability of Elite Allies

 
International Relations

 
Mobilizing Structures Perspective

 
Informal and Formal Structures

 
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

 
The Life Course of Social Movements

 
Cultural Framing Perspective

 
Frames for Understanding That a Problem Exists

 
Frames for Recognizing a Window of Opportunity

 
Frames for Establishing Goals

 
Frames for Identifying Pathways for Action

 
Emerging Perspectives

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
PART IV- THE CHANGING LIFE COURSE
 
CHAPTER 10- THE HUMAN LIFE JOURNEY: A LIFE COURSE
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 10.1: David Sanchez’s Search for Connections

 
Case Study 10.2: Phoung Le, Serving Family and Community

 
Case Study 10.3: The Suarez Family After September 11, 2001

 
A Definition of the Life Course Perspective

 
Theoretical Roots of the Life Course Perspective

 
Basic Concepts of the Life Course Perspective

 
Cohorts

 
Transitions

 
Trajectories

 
Life Events

 
Turning Points

 
Major Themes of the Life Course Perspective

 
Interplay of Human Lives and Historical Time

 
Timing of Lives

 
Dimensions of Age

 
Standardization in the Timing of Lives

 
Linked or Interdependent Lives

 
Links Between Family Members

 
Links With the Wider World

 
Human Agency in Making Choices

 
Diversity in Life Course Trajectories

 
Developmental Risk and Protection

 
The Family Life Course

 
Strengths and Limitations of the Life Course Perspective

 
Integration With a Multidimensional, Multitheoretical Approach

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 11- THE JOURNEY BEGINS: CONCEPTION, PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH, AND INFANCY
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 11.1: Jennifer Bradshaw’s Experience With Infertility

 
Case Study 11.2: The Thompsons’ Premature Birth

 
Case Study 11.3: Sarah’s Teen Dad

 
Sociocultural Organization of Childbearing and Child-Rearing

 
Conception and Pregnancy in Context

 
Childbirth in Context

 
Childbirth Education

 
Place of Childbirth

 
Who Assists Childbirth

 
Developmental Niche of Child-Rearing

 
Control Over Conception and Pregnancy

 
Contraception

 
Induced Abortion

 
Infertility Treatment

 
Fetal Development

 
First Trimester

 
Fertilization and the Embryonic Period

 
The Fetal Period

 
Second Trimester

 
Third Trimester

 
Labor and Delivery of the Neonate

 
At-Risk Newborns

 
Prematurity and Low Birth Weight

 
Congenital Anomalies

 
Typical Infant Development

 
Physical Development

 
Self-Regulation

 
Sensory Abilities

 
Reflexes

 
Motor Skills

 
The Growing Brain

 
Cognitive Development

 
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

 
Prelanguage Skills

 
Socioemotional Development

 
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

 
Emotional Control

 
Temperament

 
Attachment

 
The Role of Play

 
Child Care Arrangements in Infancy

 
Family Leave

 
Paid Child Care

 
Infants in the Multigenerational Family

 
Breastfeeding Versus Bottle Feeding Decision

 
Postpartum Depression

 
Risk and Protective Factors in Conception, Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Infancy

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 12- TODDLERHOOD AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 12.1: Overprotecting Henry

 
Case Study 12.2: Terri’s Terrible Temper

 
Case Study 12.3: A New Role for Ron and Rosiland’s Grandmother

 
Typical Development in Toddlerhood and Early Childhood

 
Physical Development

 
Cognitive and Language Development

 
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

 
Language Skills

 
Moral Development

 
Understanding Moral Development

 
Helping Young Children Develop Morally

 
Personality and Emotional Development

 
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

 
Emotions

 
Aggression

 
Attachment

 
Social Development

 
Peer Relations

 
Self-Concept

 
Gender Identity and Sexual Interests

 
Racial and Ethnic Identity

 
The Role of Play

 
Developmental Disruptions

 
Early Childhood Education

 
Toddlerhood and Early Childhood in the Multigenerational Family

 
Risks to Healthy Development in Toddlerhood and Early Childhood

 
Poverty

 
Homelessness

 
Ineffective Discipline

 
Divorce

 
Violence

 
Community Violence

 
Domestic Violence

 
Child Maltreatment

 
Protective Factors in Toddlerhood and Early Childhood

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 13- MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 13.1: Anthony Bryant’s Impending Assessment

 
Case Study 13.2: Brianna Shaw’s New Self-Image

 
Case Study 13.3: Manuel Vega’s Difficult Transition

 
Historical Perspective on Middle Childhood

 
Middle Childhood in the Multigenerational Family

 
Development in Middle Childhood

 
Physical Development

 
Cognitive Development

 
Cultural Identity Development

 
Emotional Development

 
Social Development

 
The Peer Group

 
Friendship and Intimacy

 
Team Play

 
Gender Identity and Gender Roles

 
Technology and Social Development

 
Spiritual Development

 
Middle Childhood and Formal Schooling

 
Special Challenges in Middle Childhood

 
Poverty

 
Family and Community Violence

 
Mental and Physical Challenges

 
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

 
Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

 
Family Disruption

 
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Middle Childhood

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 14- ADOLESCENCE
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 14.1: David’s Coming-Out Process

 
Case Study 14.2: Carl’s Struggle for Identity

 
Case Study 14.3: Monica’s Quest for Mastery

 
The Social Construction of Adolescence Across Time and Space

 
The Transition From Childhood to Adulthood

 
Biological Aspects of Adolescence

 
Puberty

 
The Adolescent Brain

 
Nutrition, Exercise, and Sleep

 
Psychological Aspects of Adolescence

 
Psychological Reactions to Biological Changes

 
Changes in Cognition

 
Identity Development

 
Theories of Self and Identity

 
Gender Identity

 
Cultural Identity

 
Social Aspects of Adolescence

 
Relationships With Family

 
Relationships With Peers

 
Romantic Relationships

 
Relationships With Organizations, Communities, and Institutions

 
School

 
The Broader Community

 
Work

 
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

 
Adolescent Spirituality/Religiosity

 
Adolescent Sexuality

 
Sexual Decision Making

 
Sexual Orientation

 
Pregnancy and Childbearing

 
Sexually Transmitted Infections

 
Potential Challenges to Adolescent Development

 
Substance Use and Abuse

 
Juvenile Delinquency

 
Bullying

 
School-to-Prison Pipeline

 
Community Violence

 
Dating Violence and Statutory Rape

 
Poverty and Low Educational Attainment

 
Obesity and Eating Disorders

 
Depression and Suicide

 
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Adolescence

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 15- YOUNG AND MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 15.1: Sheila Henderson, Coming Home at 25

 
Case Study 15.2: Viktor Spiro, Finding Stability at 44

 
Case Study 15.3: Michael Bowling, Swallowing His Pride at 57

 
The Meaning of Adulthood

 
Theoretical Approaches to Adulthood

 
Jung’s Analytic Psychology

 
Erikson’s Psychosocial Life Span Theory

 
Levinson’s Theory of Seasons of Adulthood

 
Arnett’s “Emerging” Adulthood

 
Variations in the Transition to Adulthood

 
Biological Functioning in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Health Maintenance in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Physical and Mental Health in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Cognition in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Personality and Identity in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Trait Approach

 
Human Agency Approach

 
Life Narrative Approach

 
Young- and Middle-Adult Spirituality

 
Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Romantic Relationships

 
Relationships With Children

 
Relationships With Parents

 
Other Family Relationship

 
Relationships With Friends

 
Work in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Young and Middle Adulthood

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
CHAPTER 16- LATE ADULTHOOD
Chapter Outline

 
Learning Objectives

 
Case Study 16.1: Ms. Ruby Johnson Is Providing Care for Three Generations

 
Case Study 16.2: Margaret Davis Stays at Home

 
Case Study 16.3: Bina Patel Outlives Her Son

 
Demographics of the Older-Adult Population

 
Cultural Construction of Late Adulthood

 
Psychosocial Theoretical Perspectives on Social Gerontology

 
Biological Changes in Late Adulthood

 
Health and Longevity

 
Age-Related Changes in Physiology

 
Functional Capacity in Very Late Adulthood

 
The Aging Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases

 
Dementia

 
Parkinson’s Disease

 
Psychological Changes in Late Adulthood

 
Personality Changes

 
Intellectual Changes, Learning, and Memory

 
Mental Health and Mental Disorders

 
Social Role Transitions and Life Events of Late Adulthood

 
Families in Later Life

 
Grandparenthood

 
Work and Retirement

 
Caregiving and Care Receiving

 
Institutionalization

 
The Search for Personal Meaning

 
Resources for Meeting the Needs of Elderly Persons

 
The Dying Process

 
Advance Directives

 
Care of People Who Are Dying

 
End-of-Life Signs and Symptoms

 
Loss, Grief, and Bereavement

 
Theories and Models of Loss and Grief

 
Culture and Bereavement

 
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Late Adulthood

 
The Life Course Completed

 
Implications for Social Work Practice

 
Key Terms

 
Active Learning

 
Web Resources

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Contributors

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

SAGE edge for Instructors, supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring your courses.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Multimedia content includes original SAGE videos that appeal to students with different learning styles.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.
  • Course cartridge for easy LMS integration is included. 
  • Four SAGE Chalk Talks, a series of whiteboard-style animations that introduce each part of the text are available on the website in addition to three SAGE Original Videos.
Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Chapter summaries with learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Interactive exercises and meaningful Web links facilitate student use of Internet resources, further exploration of topics, and responses to critical thinking questions.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.       

Sample Materials & Chapters

76374_book_item_76374.pdf

76375_book_item_76375.pdf


Preview this book

For instructors

This book is not available as an inspection copy. For more information contact your local sales representative.