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Educational Research
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Educational Research
Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches

Seventh Edition
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August 2019 | 704 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches by R. Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introduction to research methods for undergraduate and graduate students. Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields, including how to read and critically evaluate published research and how to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own. The Seventh Edition maintains the features that made this book a best-seller, including attention-grabbing chapter-opening vignettes, lively examples that engage student interest, a conversational and friendly writing style, and more. With the support of this highly readable text, readers will transform into critical consumers and users of research.

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PREFACE
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 
PART I. INTRODUCTION
 
CHAPTER 1. Introduction to Educational Research
WHY STUDY EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH?

 
AREAS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

 
EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

 
GENERAL KINDS OF RESEARCH

 
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE

 
THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE GENERATION

 
OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

 
DISPOSITIONS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER

 
OVERVIEW OF THIS BOOK

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
CHAPTER 2. Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THREE RESEARCH PARADIGMS

 
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS: EXPERIMENTAL AND NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

 
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS

 
MIXED RESEARCH (OR MIXED METHODS RESEARCH)

 
OUR RESEARCH TYPOLOGY

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
CHAPTER 3. Action Research for Lifelong Learning
DEFINING ACTION RESEARCH

 
ORIGINS OF ACTION RESEARCH

 
BASIC SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH VERSUS ACTION RESEARCH

 
TYPES OF ACTION RESEARCH

 
THE CYCLE OF ACTION RESEARCH

 
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF ACTION RESEARCH

 
ACTION RESEARCH JOURNALING

 
ACTION RESEARCH IN THE REMAINING CHAPTERS OF THIS BOOK

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTE

 
 
PART II. PLANNING THE RESEARCH STUDY
 
CHAPTER 4. How to Critically Review the Literature and Develop Good Research Questions
SOURCES OF RESEARCH IDEAS

 
IDEAS THAT CAN’T BE RESOLVED THROUGH EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

 
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

 
FEASIBILITY OF THE STUDY

 
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

 
STATEMENT OF THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 
FORMULATING HYPOTHESES

 
CONSUMER USE OF THE LITERATURE

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
CHAPTER 5. How to Write a Research Proposal
FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 
STRATEGIES FOR WRITING EACH SECTION OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 
STRATEGIES FOR EVALUATING YOUR RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISE

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
CHAPTER 6. Research Ethics
WHAT ARE RESEARCH ETHICS?

 
ETHICAL CONCERNS

 
ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH WITH HUMANS

 
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD

 
ETHICAL ISSUES IN ELECTRONIC RESEARCH

 
ETHICAL ISSUES IN PREPARING THE RESEARCH REPORT

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
PART III. FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH
 
CHAPTER 7. Standardized Measurement and Assessment
DEFINING MEASUREMENT

 
SCALES OF MEASUREMENT

 
ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

 
IDENTIFYING A GOOD TEST OR ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE

 
RELIABILITY

 
VALIDITY

 
USING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY INFORMATION IN YOUR RESEARCH

 
EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS

 
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT TESTS

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
CHAPTER 8. Methods of Data Collection in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
MIXING METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

 
TESTS

 
QUESTIONNAIRES

 
INTERVIEWS

 
FOCUS GROUPS

 
OBSERVATION

 
CONSTRUCTED, SECONDARY, AND EXISTING DATA

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
CHAPTER 9. How to Construct a Questionnaire
WHAT IS A QUESTIONNAIRE?

 
PRINCIPLES OF QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION

 
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISE

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
CHAPTER 10. Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
TERMINOLOGY USED IN SAMPLING

 
RANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

 
NONRANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

 
RANDOM SELECTION AND RANDOM ASSIGNMENT

 
DETERMINING THE SAMPLE SIZE WHEN RANDOM SAMPLING IS USED

 
SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

 
SAMPLING IN MIXED RESEARCH

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
CHAPTER 11. Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
VALIDITY ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

 
INTERNAL VALIDITY (I.E., CAUSATION VALIDITY)

 
EXTERNAL VALIDITY (I.E., GENERALIZING VALIDITY)

 
CONSTRUCT VALIDITY

 
STATISTICAL CONCLUSION VALIDITY

 
RESEARCH VALIDITY (OR “TRUSTWORTHINESS”) IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

 
RESEARCH VALIDITY (OR “LEGITIMATION”) IN MIXED (METHODS) RESEARCH

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
PART IV. SELECTING A RESEARCH METHOD
 
Section A. Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
 
CHAPTER 12. Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs
THE EXPERIMENT

 
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH SETTINGS

 
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE MANIPULATION

 
CONTROL OF CONFOUNDING VARIABLES

 
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
CHAPTER 13. Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS

 
SINGLE-CASE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTE

 
 
CHAPTER 14. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
STEPS IN NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

 
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IN NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

 
SIMPLE CASES OF NONEXPERIMENTAL QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

 
THREE REQUIRED CONDITIONS FOR CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS

 
APPLYING THE THREE REQUIRED CONDITIONS FOR CAUSATION IN NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

 
TECHNIQUES OF CONTROL IN NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (I.E., HOW TO DESIGN STRONG NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH)

 
INTERLUDE (THE STUDY OF CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY)

 
CLASSIFYING NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH BY TIME AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

 
THE TIME DIMENSION IN NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

 
THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE DIMENSION IN NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
Section B. Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
 
CHAPTER 15. Narrative Inquiry and Case Study Research
NARRATIVE INQUIRY

 
CASE STUDY RESEARCH

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
NARRATIVE INQUIRY EXAMPLES

 
CASE STUDY EXAMPLES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
CHAPTER 16. Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory
PHENOMENOLOGY

 
ETHNOGRAPHY

 
GROUNDED THEORY

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
Section C. Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches
 
CHAPTER 17. Mixed Research
THE RESEARCH CONTINUUM

 
TYPES OF MIXED RESEARCH DESIGNS

 
STAGES OF THE MIXED RESEARCH PROCESS

 
LIMITATIONS OF MIXED RESEARCH

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
PART V. ANALYZING THE DATA
 
CHAPTER 18. Descriptive Statistics
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

 
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

 
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS OF DATA

 
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

 
MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

 
MEASURES OF RELATIVE STANDING

 
EXAMINING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VARIABLES

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
 
CHAPTER 19. Inferential Statistics
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS

 
ESTIMATION

 
HYPOTHESIS TESTING

 
HYPOTHESIS TESTING IN PRACTICE

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
CHAPTER 19 APPENDIX: TOTAL NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS RECOMMENDED FOR DIFFERENT STATISTICAL TESTS

 
 
CHAPTER 20. Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
INTERIM ANALYSIS

 
MEMOING

 
ANALYSIS OF VISUAL DATA

 
DATA ENTRY AND STORAGE

 
SEGMENTING, CODING, AND DEVELOPING CATEGORY SYSTEMS

 
FIRST-STAGE AND SECOND-STAGE CODING

 
ENUMERATION

 
THEMATIC ANALYSIS AND CREATING HIERARCHICAL CATEGORY SYSTEMS

 
IDENTIFYING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CATEGORIES

 
CORROBORATING AND VALIDATING RESULTS

 
COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

 
DATA ANALYSIS IN MIXED RESEARCH

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERMS

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
NOTES

 
CHAPTER 20 APPENDIX: ADDITIONAL TYPES OF CODES FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

 
 
PART VI. WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT
 
CHAPTER 21. How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines
GENERAL PRINCIPLES RELATED TO WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT (I)

 
WRITING AN APA-STYLE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT (II)

 
EXAMPLE OF AN APA-STYLE MANUSCRIPT

 
WRITING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORTS

 
WRITING MIXED RESEARCH REPORTS

 
ACTION RESEARCH REFLECTION

 
SUMMARY

 
KEY TERM

 
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
RESEARCH EXERCISES

 
PROPOSAL EXERCISES

 
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 
RECOMMENDED READING

 
 
APPENDIX: CITATIONS FOR JOURNAL ARTICLES NOTED IN THE MARGINS
 
GLOSSARY
 
REFERENCES
 
AUTHOR INDEX
 
SUBJECT INDEX
 
ABOUT THE AUTHORS

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“The innovative structure of Educational Research paves the way for students to build a cohesive understanding of the research process and learn to appreciate various approaches to research design without positioning any one paradigm as the ‘default.’”

Christy Galletta Horner
Bowling Green State University

Educational Research provides students the introduction that is needed for them to be both consumers and producers of educational research.”

David Schmid
University of Northern Iowa

Educational Research is an excellent textbook that meets the needs for a course based on CACREP standards. Extremely reader friendly with helpful supplemental materials.”

Nancy L. Leech
University of Colorado Denver

Educational Research contains invaluable wisdom and advice from leading scholars. It is accessible to a wide audience, including management scholars, undergraduate and graduate students majoring in business, and working professionals in the field of management and marketing. I greatly admire this textbook.”

Young Kim
Lasell College