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Criminology
The Essentials

Fourth Edition
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Other Titles in:
Criminology (General)

March 2020 | 416 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Criminology: The Essentials, Fourth Edition, by Anthony Walsh and Jensten Cody Jorgensen, introduces students to major theoretical perspectives and criminology topics in a concise, easy-to-read format. This straightforward overview of the major subject areas in criminology thoroughly covers the most up-to-date advances in theory and research, while challenging students to consider the applications of these theories as well as their policy implications. 
 
Preface
 
1. An Overview of Crime and Criminology
What Is Criminology?

 
What Is Crime?

 
Criminality

 
An Excursion Through the American Criminal Justice System

 
A Short History of Criminology

 
The Role of Theory in Criminology

 
Ideology in Criminological Theory

 
Connecting Criminological Theory and Social Policy

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion

 
Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
2. Measuring Crime and Criminal Behavior
Categorizing and Measuring Crime and Criminal Behavior

 
Uniform Crime Reports: Counting Crime Officially

 
NIBRS, the UCR, and Police Bias in Arrests

 
Crime Victimization Survey Data and Their Problems

 
Areas of Agreement Between the UCR and NCVS

 
Self-Report Crime Surveys and Their Problems

 
Crime Mapping

 
White-Collar Crime: The FBI’s Financial Crimes Report

 
The Dark Figure of Crime

 
What Can We Conclude About the Three Main Measures of Crime in America?

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion

 
Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
3. Victimology: Exploring the Experience of Victimization
The Emergence of Victimology

 
Who Gets Victimized?

 
Victimization in the Workplace

 
Human Trafficking

 
Sexual Assault of Children: Who Gets Victimized?

 
Domestic Violence Victimization

 
Hate Crimes

 
Identity Theft and Other Forms of Cybervictimization

 
Victimization Theories

 
Victimization and the Criminal Justice System

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
4. The Early Schools of Criminology
Introduction: Preclassical Notions of Crime and Criminals

 
The Classical School: The Calculating Criminal

 
The Rise of Positivism

 
Deterrence and Choice: Pain Versus Gain

 
Evaluation of the Classical and Early Positivist Schools

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Deterrence Theories

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
5. Crime as Choice: Rationality, Emotion, and Criminal Behavior
Returning to Classic Assumptions of Human Nature

 
Rational Choice Theory

 
Routine Activities Theory

 
Cultural Criminology

 
Emotions and Their Functions

 
Policy and Prevention:

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
6. Social Structural Theories
The Social Structural Tradition

 
The Chicago School of Ecology

 
The Anomie/Strain Tradition

 
Extending Anomie: Subcultural Theories

 
Street Gangs Today

 
Evaluation of the Anomie/Strain and Subcultural Tradition

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Structural Theories

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
7. Social Process Theories
The Social Process Tradition

 
Differential Association Theory

 
Social Learning Theory

 
The Social Control Tradition

 
Labeling Theory: The Irony of Social Reaction

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Process Theories

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
8. Critical and Feminist Theories
The Conflict Perspective of Society

 
Karl Marx and Revolution

 
Conflict Theory: Max Weber and Power and Conflict

 
Other Critical Criminologies

 
Evaluation of Critical Theories

 
Feminist Criminology

 
Evaluation of Feminist Theories

 
Policy and Prevention

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
9. Psychosocial Theories: Individual Traits and Criminal Behavior
Introduction: The Two “Great Pillars of Psychology”

 
Intelligence

 
Temperament and Personality

 
Conscience and Arousal

 
Glen Walters’s Lifestyle Theory

 
The Antisocial Personalities

 
Evaluation of the Psychosocial Perspective

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Psychosocial Theories

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
10. Biosocial Approaches
The Biosocial Approach

 
Behavior Genetics

 
The Neurosciences

 
Evolutionary Psychology

 
Other Biosocial Risk Factors for Criminality

 
Evaluation of the Biosocial Perspective

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Biosocial Theories

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
11. Developmental Theories: From Delinquency to Crime to Desistance
The Developmental Perspective: Continuity and Change

 
Risk and Protective Factors for Serious Delinquency

 
Major Developmental Theories

 
Evaluation of Developmental Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Developmental Theories

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
12. Crimes of Violence
Violence in History

 
Murder

 
Mass, Spree, and Serial Murder

 
Rape

 
Robbery

 
Aggravated Assault

 
Gun Violence

 
Theories of Violence

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
13. Terrorism
What Is Terrorism?

 
The Extent of Terrorism

 
Domestic Terrorism

 
Is There a Terrorist Personality?

 
Theories of Terrorism

 
Law Enforcement Response and Government Policy

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
14. Property Crime
 
What Is a Property Offense?
Larceny–Theft

 
Burglary

 
Motor Vehicle Theft

 
Arson

 
Crimes of Guile and Deceit: Embezzlement, Fraud, and Forgery/ Counterfeiting

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
15. Public Order Crime
What Are Public Order Crimes?

 
Alcohol and Crime

 
Illegal Drugs and Crime

 
Prostitution and Commercialized Vice

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
16. White-Collar Crime
The Concept of White-Collar Crime

 
Occupational Crime

 
Corporate Crime

 
Theories on the Causes of Corporate Crime

 
Law Enforcement’s Response to Corporate Crime

 
Cybercrime: Oh, What a Tangled World Wide Web We Weave!

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
17. Organized Crime
What Is Organized Crime?

 
Political Corruption and Organized Crime

 
A Brief History of Organized Crime in the United States

 
Other Organized Crime Groups

 
Theories of Organized Crime

 
Law Enforcement’s Response to Organized Crime

 
Summary

 
Exercises and Discussion Questions

 
Useful Websites

 
Chapter Terms

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Author

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