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Corrections: A Text/Reader

Corrections: A Text/Reader

Third Edition
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January 2019 | 768 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The Third Edition of Corrections: A Text/Reader provides students with the best of both worlds—a brief authored text accompanied by carefully selected and edited readings. Clear explanations of all of the major course topics help students understand the impact of new directions and policy in corrections. Policy-oriented original research articles demonstrate how research drives these advances. Designed throughout to enhance understanding, the book includes a helpful "How to Read a Research Article" section before the first reading, as well as article introductions, photographs, and discussion questions that capture students’ interest and help them develop their critical thinking skills. 

New to the Third Edition

  • Nearly 75% of the journal articles have been updated to introduce students to current research on important topics such as racial and ethnic disparities in probation, influences on inmate misconduct, transgender prison inmates, and lethal injection protocol.
  • Updated and expanded coverage of ethical considerations, special populations, and the history of corrections provides students with the context for understanding policy decisions and their consequences, both past and present. 
    New Sections on Ethics (Section IV) and the Death Penalty (Section XVI) offer students insights into key issues in corrections today.
  • More coverage on disparities in sentencing and drug courts encourages students to think critically about U.S. drug policies and their effectiveness.
  • Additional content on federal procedures and private prisons shows real examples of private prisons, their profit motives, and the effect they have on the correctional system.
  • The most current data, facts, statistics, and research are included throughout the book to provide students with insights into the world of corrections today.

Give your students the SAGE edge! 
SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of free tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. Learn more at

About the Authors
SECTION I. The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?  
From Arrest to Punishment  
The Major Punishment Justifications  
READING 1. The Goals of Corrections: Perspectives From the Line  
READING 2. Broken Beyond Repair: Rehabilitative Penology and American Political Development  
SECTION II. Correctional History: Ancient Times to Colonial Jails
Narrative of What Happened When Three Men Were First Placed in the Missouri State  
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections  
Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice  
Early Punishments in Westernized Countries  
Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift  
Colonial Jails and Prisons  
READING 3. An Historical Outline of the Penitentiary System  
SECTION III. Correctional History: The 17th to 20th Centuries
Jim Crow Treatment in Prisons  
Introduction: The Grand Reforms  
Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models  
Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed  
The Renewed Promise of Reform  
Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons  
Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?  
Themes That Prevail in Correctional History  
READING 4. “Much and Unfortunately Neglected”: Women in Early and Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prisons  
SECTION IV. Ethics and Corrections
A Novice Bows to Subcultural Pressure  
Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!  
Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?  
Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice  
Why People Behave Unethically  
How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and to Promote Ethical Work Practices  
War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?  
READING 5. Ethics in a Mountain State County Jail  
READING 6. Deconstructing Correctional Officer Deviance: Toward Typologies of Actions and Controls  
SECTION V. Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
Vindictive Versus Sensible Sentencing  
What Is Sentencing?  
Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory  
Habitual Offender Statutes  
Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Noncustodial Sentences  
Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders  
Problem-Solving Courts  
Drug Courts  
Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate  
Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report  
Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines  
The Future of Sentencing Guidelines  
READING 7. Cracked Justice  
READING 8. Determinants of State Innovations in American Sentencing and Corrections Policy: A Systematic Review  
SECTION VI. Jails and Detention Centers
A Mentally Ill Inmate in the Dona Ana County Jail, New Mexico  
Introduction: The Community Institution  
Jail Types  
Jail Inmates and Their Processing  
Gender, Juveniles, Race, and Ethnicity  
The Poor and the Mentally Ill  
Medical Problems  
Substance Abuse and Jails  
Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails  
Innovations in Jails  
READING 9. Why Do Some Jail Inmates Not Engage in Treatment and Services?  
READING 10. National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later  
SECTION VII. Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
The Origins of Probation  
Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation  
Why Do We Need Community Corrections?  
The Probation Officer Role  
Models of Probation Supervision  
Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions  
Probation Officer Stress  
Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism  
Intermediate Sanctions  
READING 11. A Probation Profanation: Race, Ethnicity, and Probation in a Midwestern Sample  
READING 12. Sex Offender Supervision in Context: The Need for Qualitative Examinations of Social Distance in Sex Offender–Supervision Officer Relationships  
SECTION VIII. Prisons and the Correctional Client
Kitchen Supervisor Sexually Abuses Two Male Inmates  
Introduction: The State of Prisons  
Prison Organizations  
Prison Value?  
Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience  
The Prison Subculture  
Gangs and the Prison Subculture  
Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature Coping, and Social Support  
Special Populations  
READING 13. Sex Differences in the Predictors of Prisoner Misconduct  
READING 14. Prison Architecture and Inmate Misconduct: A Multilevel Assessment  
SECTION IX. The Corrections Experience for Staff
John’s Tragic Story  
The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs  
Why the Need to Require More Education and Training Exists  
Organizational-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace  
Organizational Culture  
Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace  
Correctional Roles  
The Subculture and Socialization  
Staff Interactions With Inmates  
Other Issues for Staff: Stress, Burnout, Turnover  
Perceived Benefits of Correctional Work  
READING 15. Problems at Work: Exploring the Correlates of Role Stress Among Correctional Staff  
READING 16. Gendered Adherence: Correctional Officers and Therapeutic Reform in a Reentry Facility  
SECTION X. Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
The Perils of Parole  
What Is Parole?  
Parole Boards  
What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community  
The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities  
What Makes for a Successful Reentry?  
Determining Parole “Success”  
Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions  
House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems  
Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism  
READING 17. Examining the Predictors of Recidivism Among Men and Women Released From Prison in Ohio  
READING 18. Prisoner Reentry in a Small Metropolitan Community: Obstacles and Policy Recommendations  
SECTION XI. Women and Corrections
Supervising Is Different for Women  
History and Growth  
Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections  
Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment  
Female Correctional Officers  
READING 19. A Historical Review of Mother and Child Programs for Incarcerated Women  
READING 20. Examining External Support Received in Prison and Concerns About Reentry Among Incarcerated Women  
SECTION XII. Minorities and Corrections
Undocumented Workers and Their Side of the Story  
Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination  
A Legacy of Racism  
The Connection Between Class and Race/Ethnicity  
Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration  
Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration  
Minorities Working in Corrections  
READING 21. Racial Desegregation in Prisons  
READING 22. Mass Incarceration Through a Different Lens: Race, Subcontext, and Perceptions of Punitiveness of Correctional Alternatives When Compared to Prison  
SECTION XIII. Juveniles and Corrections
Too Young for Life  
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending  
The Extent of Delinquency  
The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior  
History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice  
Childhood in the United States  
The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts  
Processing Juvenile Offenders  
Juvenile Community Corrections  
Intensive Probation  
Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections  
READING 23. Juvenile Justice: The Legacy of Punitive Policy  
READING 24. Managing the Threat of Violence: Coping Strategies Among Juvenile Inmates  
SECTION XIV. Legal Issues in Corrections
Prison Without Law  
The Rule of Law  
The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963  
The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978  
The Deference Period: 1979–Present  
First Amendment  
Fourth Amendment  
Eighth Amendment  
Fourteenth Amendment  
The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders  
Curtailing Prisoner Petitions  
Legal Issues in Probation and Parole  
READING 25. Correctional Officer Excessive Use of Force: Civil Liability Under Section 1983  
READING 26. Transgender Inmates in Prisons: A Review of Applicable Statutes and Policies  
SECTION XV. Correctional Programming and Treatment
Life’s Turning Points  
The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation  
The Shift From “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”  
Evidence-Based Practices  
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  
Substance Abuse Programming  
Anger Management  
Sex Offenders and Their Treatment  
Mentally Ill Offenders  
READING 27. Reducing Institutional Disorder: Using the Inmate Risk Assessment for Segregation Placement to Triage Treatment Services at the Front End of Prison Sentences  
READING 28. Gender Differences in Prison-Based Drug Treatment Participation  
SECTION XVI. The Death Penalty
A Very Unusual, Very Expensive Serial Killer  
The Death Penalty and Public Opinion  
Methods of Execution Used in the United States  
Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty  
Does the Death Penalty Deter?  
Financial Costs and the Death Penalty  
Women and the Death Penalty  
The Death Penalty and Mental Disability  
The Death Penalty and Mental Illness  
The Innocence Revolution  
READING 29. The Execution of Wallace Wilkerson: Precedent and Portent  
READING 30. How Would You Like to Die? Glossip v. Gross Deals Blow to Abolitionists  
SECTION XVII. Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future  
Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections  
Corrections Is a Relationship Business  
Concluding Thoughts  
READING 31. The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model Revisited: Using Biosocial Criminology to Enhance Offender Rehabilitation  
READING 32. Decarceration and Its Possible Effects on Inmates, Staff, and Communities  


Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
Instructor Resource Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • SAGE edge for Instructors, supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.
  • Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group project.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Video and web resources provide further research and insights that bring concepts to life and make learning easier.
  • Access to all tables, figures, learning objectives, and chapter outlines from the text.

For instructors

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ISBN: 9781544339221