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# Causality

Four Volume Set

**Edited by:**

- Stephen Turner - University of South Florida, USA

January 2010 | 1 704 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Causality is a core problem in social science methodology, as the laws of causality found in physics - which state generalizations without exceptions - are not found in the social sciences. As a consequence, classical definitions of the causal relation, such as John Stuart Mill's definition in terms of invariant succession, need either to be modified and qualified, or replaced by a different concept of causality entirely. This has led to a long and complex literature on the problems of causality.

This four volume major reference work, Causality, covers the main issues, methods of analysis, and alternatives, of causality, including the classic texts applying these alternative concepts and methods to empirical cases. The volumes give a substantial historical and philosophical introduction relevant to the concerns of practitioners. As a whole, the volumes represent a complete guide to the literature on social science causality from the beginning to the present.t.

VOLUME 1

On the Study of Causes

L.A. Quetelet

Quetelet on Probabilities

John F.W. Herschel

Causation

John Venn

Mariage

Jacques Bertillon

The Scientific Law

Karl Pearson

Cause and Effect-Probability

Karl Pearson

Contingency and Correlation-the Insufficiency of Causation

Karl Pearson

On the Correlation of Total Pauperism with Proportion of Out-Relief

G. Udny Yule

An Investigation into the Causes in Pauperism in England, Chiefly During the Last Two Intercensal Decades

G. Udny Yule

Partial Association

G. Udny Yule

VOLUME 2

The Generalizing Theories: Adequate cause

H.L.A. Hart and Tony Honoré

Concerning Cause and the Law of Torts

Guido Calabresi

Causation in Tort Law

Richard W. Wright

Causal Ordering and Identifiability

Herbert A. Simon

Spurious Correlation: A causal interpretation

Herbert A. Simon

Correlation and Causality: The multivariate case

H.M. Blalock, Jr.

The Introduction of Additional Variables and the Problem of Spuriousness

Herbert Hyman

The Introduction of Additional Variables and the Elaboration of Analysis

Herbert Hyman

The Environment and Disease: Association or causation?

Austin Bradford Hill

Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-spectral Models

C.W.J. Granger

Spurious Regressions in Econometrics

C.W.J. Granger and P. Newbold

Testing for Causality: A personal viewpoint

C.W.J. Granger

Statistics and Causal Inference

Paul W. Holland

Statistics and Causal Inference: Comment: Which ifs have causal answers?

Donald B. Rubin

Statistics and Causal Inference: Comment

D.R. Cox

Statistics and Causal Inference: Comment: Statistics and metaphysics

Clark Glymour

Statistics and Causal Inference: Comment

Clive Granger

Statistics and Causal Inference: Rejoinder

Paul W. Holland

Causal Inference, Path Analysis, and Recursive Structural Equations Models

Paul W. Holland

Dangers of Cigarette Smoking

Ronald A. Fisher

Cigarettes, Cancer, and Statistics

Ronald A. Fisher

The Nature of Probability

Ronald A. Fisher

Lung Cancer and Cigarettes

Ronald A. Fisher

Cancer and Smoking

Ronald A. Fisher

Inhaling

Ronald A. Fisher

Review

C.C. Spicer

Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error

James J. Heckman

Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social Programs: The case of manpower training

James J. Heckman and Joseph V. Hotz

Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social Programs: The case of manpower training: Comment

Paul W. Holland

Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social Programs: The case of manpower training: Comment

Robert Moffitt

Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social Programs: The case of manpower training: Rejoinder

James J. Heckman and Joseph V. Hotz

VOLUME 3

Graphs, Causality, and Structural Equation Models

Judea Pearl

Confounding and Collapsibility in Causal Inference

Sander Greenland, Judea Pearl and James M. Robins

Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research

Judea Pearl

Graphical Models for Causation, and the Identification Problem

David A. Freedman

Measures of Association for Cross Classifications

Leo A. Goodman and William H. Kruskal

Simple Models for the Analysis of Association in Cross-classifications Having Ordered Categories

Leo A. Goodman

The Multivariate Analysis of Qualitative Data: Interactions among multiple classifications

Leo A. Goodman

The Analysis of Cross-classified Data: Independence, quasi-independence, and interactions in contingency tables with or without missing entries

Leo A. Goodman

The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects

Paul R. Rosenbaum and Donald B. Rubin

Estimating Causal Effects of Treatments in Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies

Donald B. Rubin

Constructing a Control Group Using Multivariate Matched Sampling Methods that Incorporate the Propensity Score

Paul R. Rosenbaum and Donald B. Rubin

Reducing Bias in Observational Studies Using Subclassification on the Propensity Score

Paul R. Rosenbaum and Donald B. Rubin

Identification of Causal Effects Using Instrumental Variables

Joshua D. Angrist, Guido W. Imbens and Donald B. Rubin

Bayesian Inference for Causal Effects: The role of randomization

Donald B. Rubin

Estimating Causal Effects from Large Data Sets Using Propensity Scores

Donald B. Rubin

Assignment of Treatment Group on the Basis of a Covariate

Donald B. Rubin

From Association to Causation in Observational Studies: The role of tests of strongly ignorable treatment assignment

Paul R. Rosenbaum

Notes on the Theory of Association of Attributes in Statistics

G. Udny Yule

The Interpretation of Interaction in Contingency Tables

E.H. Simpson

On Simpson's Paradox and the Sure-thing Principle

Colin R. Blyth

Confounding and Simpson's Paradox

Steven A. Julious and Mark A. Mullee

Comment on: 'Confounding and Simpson's Paradox'

C.R. Charig

Ecological Correlations and the Behavior of Individuals

W.S. Robinson

Social experiments: Some developments over the past fifteen years

T.D. Cook and W.R. Shadish

The Moderator-mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations

Reuben M. Baron and David A. Kenny

VOLUME 4

Causal Laws and Effective Strategies

Nancy Cartwright

Causes and Conditions

J.L. Mackie

Causation

David Lewis

Causation

David Lewis

Causation as Influence

David Lewis

Small n's and Big Conclusions: An examination of the reasoning in comparative studies based on a small number of cases

Stanley Lieberson

Utilizing Causal Models to Discover Flaws in Experiments

Herbert L. Costner

Statistical Models and Shoe Leather

David A. Freedman

From Association to Causation Via Regression

David A. Freedman

Nuisance Variables and the Ex Post Facto Design

Paul Meehl

The Path Analysis Controversy: A new statistical approach to strong appraisal of verisimilitude

Paul E. Meehl and Nils G. Waller