Ralph Manning is an independent consultant in primary education. He has worked as a primary teacher and as a lecturer in primary teacher education for 18 years, following an earlier career in the IT industry. Ralph led the mathematics and physical education programmes for the Primary PGCE at the University of East Anglia until 2013. His other specific interests are in developing children’s higher thinking skills, assessment for learning and planning for teaching effectively. He was a former founding member of the General Teaching Council for England and is engaged in supporting developing education projects in India.