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Foot & Ankle Specialist

Foot & Ankle Specialist

Other Titles in:
Foot & Ankle | Podiatry | Surgery

eISSN: 19387636 | ISSN: 19386400 | Current volume: 17 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Bi-monthly

Foot & Ankle Specialist (FAS) is a bimonthly journal offering peer-reviewed clinical information for foot and ankle caregivers. Written and edited by podiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons, FAS offers the latest techniques and advancements in foot and ankle treatment through research reports and reviews, technical perspectives, case studies, and other evidence-based articles. FAS enables practitioners to address a broad range of disorders and provide their patients with the best current diagnosis and therapy.

Foot and Ankle Specialist is a must-read for foot and ankle specialists such as:

  • Podiatric Surgeons
  • Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • Plastic Surgeons
  • Nerve Specialists
  • Wound Specialists
  • Physicians
  • Nurse Practitioners
  • Physician Assistants
  • Podiatric Assistants
  • Physical Therapists
  • Topics covered in the journal include:
  • Ankle Instability & Arthritis
  • Sports Podiatry/Orthopaedics
  • Diabetic Foot & Wound Care
  • Heel Pain/Plantar Fasciitis/Heel Spurs
  • Dermatology/Skin Care
  • Surgeries and Infection

The content is divided into four sections: Practice, Research, Business, and Equipment.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Foot & Ankle Specialist (FAS) is a bimonthly journal offering peer-reviewed clinical information for foot and ankle caregivers. Written and edited by podiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons, FAS offers the latest techniques and advancements in foot and ankle treatment through research reports and reviews, technical perspectives, case studies, and other evidence-based articles. FAS enables practitioners to address a broad range of disorders and provide their patients with the best current diagnosis and therapy.

John R. Clements, DPM Associate Professor Orthopedic Surgery, Carilion School of Medicine, Virginia Tech; Director of Podiatric Medical and Surgical Education, Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital, VA, USA
Christopher W. Reb, DO Malcom Randall Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL
Associate Editor
Sudheer Reddy, MD Shady Grove Orthopaedics, Adventist Health Care, USA
Editorial Board
Sergio Abello, MD Ortopedia y Traumatogia Clínica Shaio, Bogota, Colombia
Charles Andersen, MD, FACS, FAPWCA Chief of the Vascular/Endovascular Surgery Service and Medical Director of the Wound Care Clinic, Madigan Army Medical Center, USA
David G. Armstrong, DPM, PhD Southwester Academic Limb Salvage Alliance (SALSA), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
Wang Bibo, MD Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Medicine School of Shanghai Jiaotong Univerity, China
Thomas J. Chang, DPM Redwood Orthopaedic Surgery Associates, USA
Emily A. Cook, DPM, MPH, CPH Clinical Instructor in Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Director of Resident Training, Department of Surgery, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA, USA
Lawrence A. DiDomenico, DPM, FACFAS, FACFAOM, CWS Reconstructive Rearfoot & Ankle Surgical Fellowship
Ivica Ducic, Dr., MD, PhD Georgetown University Hospital, USA
Lawrence A. Ford, DPM Richmond Medical Center, Richmond, CA, USA
Lisa Gould, MD, PhD, FACS Wound Recovery and Hyperbaric Medicine Center, Kent Hospital, USA
Suzanne Hawson, PT, MPT, OCS University Foot and Ankle Institute, USA
Jensen Henry, M.D. Foot and Ankle Department, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
Christopher F. Hyer, DPM, FACFAS Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center, USA
Christian Kinast, Orthopaedie Zentrum Arabellapark, Muenchen, Germany
Jonathan Labovitz, DPM, FACFAS Western University of Health Sciences
Tun Hing Lui, MBBS(HK) North District Hospital, Hong Kong, China
Xin Ma, MD, PhD Huashan Hospital Fudan University, China
Peter G. Mangone, MD Blue Ridge Bone & Joint Clinic, Asheville, NC, USA
Tristan Meusnier, MD Clinique Saint Charles, Lyon, France
Joseph T. O'Neil, MD Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, USA
Murray J. Penner, MD, FRCSC University of British Columbia, Canada
Mark A. Reiley Berkeley Orthopaedic MEdical Group, Inc., USA
Kevin B. Rosenbloom, C.Ped Foot In Motion, Inc., USA
Niten Singh, MD Chief, Endovascular Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, USA
Dishan Singh, MBChB, FRCS(Orth) Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, UK
David Soomekh, DPM University Foot and Ankle Institute, USA
Alan Yan, MD Assistant Professor in Orthopedic Surgery, Comprehensive Foot Ankle Center, Mercy Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA
Thomas Zgonis, DPM, FACFAS Department of Orthopaedics/Podiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, USA
Editor-in-Chief Emeritus
Gregory C. Berlet Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center, Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, USA
John M. Schuberth, DPM Foot and Ankle Surgery, Dept of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA
W. Bret Smith Director Foot and Ankle Institute, Mercy Orthopaedics, Durango, CO, USA
Lowell Weil, Jr., DPM, MBA CEO, Weil Foot and Ankle; Fellowship Director, Weil Foot and Ankle Institute, USA
Founding Editor
Gregory C. Berlet Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center, Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, USA
Babak Baravarian, DPM, FACFAS Chief of Podiatry at Santa Monica UCLA and Orthopedic Hospital, USA
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • NISC
  • ProQuest
  • Scopus
  • Foot & Ankle Specialist Manuscript Submission Guidelines


    Editorial Purpose and Policies

    Foot & Ankle Specialist (FAS) serves as a multidisciplinary journal dedicated to advancement of foot and ankle care. The primary audiences for FAS are podiatric surgeons and orthopaedists specializing in foot and ankle care. Authors should focus on the needs and interests of these individuals with particular emphasis on clinical relevance to any data cited or recommendations made.

    The journal welcomes review and research articles in addition to technical articles, letters to the editor, case reports, practice-based, treatment dilemmas, advancements in foot and ankle specialization care, and equipment usage. Please note that the journal will prioritize original research submissions over case reports submissions.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that FAS may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?
    1.2 Article types
    1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    2.7 Clinical trials
    2.8 Reporting guidelines
    2.9 Research Data
    3. Publishing polices
    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
    4.1 Formatting
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Supplemental material
    4.4 Reference style
    4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
    5.1 ORCID
    5.2 Information required for completing your submission
    5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
    6.1 Sage Production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Article types

    There are monthly department columns, including:

    • Technology column: an approximate 1,500-word first-person column about technological developments or what is going on in a foot and ankle surgeon's practice
    • Master Surgeon: an approximate 1,500-word first-person column on a new surgical technique you use or are familiar with, or a step-by-step technique column on a topic such as reconstructive surgery, arthritis, etc.
    • Roundtable Discussion
    • Current Trends in Foot and Ankle Surgery
    • Techniques: The technique is a 3,000 word (4 pages max) article that must follow the following criteria. The technique must be innovative and must be abiding by standard of care and within scope of practice of author. The article must be evidenced-based and clinical follow-up should be a minimum of 1 year.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    2. Editorial policies

    Manuscripts will be reviewed by at least two reviewers in a double-anonymize peer review. Manuscripts are considered with the stipulation that they are submitted solely to FAS and that no part of the submission has previously appeared elsewhere. Where questions exist, authors should submit copies of material that has appeared elsewhere. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain and submit permission for any copyrighted material in the manuscript (such as, tables or figures).


    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted
    • Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    FAS is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for FAS can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    • Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    • Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    • Approved the version to be published,
    • Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions
    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    FAS requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of FAS to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    2.7 Clinical trials

    FAS conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives

    2.9. Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    FAS and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    FAS offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

    If you or your funder wishes your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    The manuscript is typed on white paper, 22 × 28 cm (8½ × 11 in.), with margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 in.) at top, bottom, and both sides.

    • Use double spacing.
    • Arrange the manuscript with the following sections and begin each section on a separate page: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) key words, (4) Level of Evidence, (5) text, (6) references, (7) glossary (if needed), (8) tables (each table on a separate page), (9) figures, and (10) legends.
    • Abbreviated terms are spelled out at first use and followed with the abbreviation in parentheses. Avoid overuse of contrived abbreviations.
    • Written permission to use non-original material (quotations exceeding 100 words, any table or illustration) from both author and publisher of the original is included, and the source is credited in the manuscript. No article will be accepted as a submission to FAS without all required permissions.
    • Title page: Include (1) the full title of the paper—short, clear, and specific; (2) authors’ full names, (3) degrees and institutional affiliation of all authors; (4) name, address (including zip code), e-mail address, and phone number of all contributing authors; (5) a running title of 3 or 4 words; (6) any acknowledgments; and (7) any conflicts of interest or funding information. Indicate the author to whom communications should go to regarding the manuscript and reprint requests.
    • Abstract: Provide an article summary of 200 words or less.
    • Key words: Include 4-5 key words.
    • Grant and other acknowledgments: Specify support of any work discussed, by a grant or otherwise, as well as the meeting, if any, at which the paper was presented (including place and date).

    Level of Evidence

    The journal requires that authors self-report Level of Evidence and Study Design in their submission (for example, Therapeutic, Level IV: Retrospective). For more information on the Level of Evidence guidelines of the journal, which closely mirror those of other orthopaedic journals, click here. Our editors will review your classification and reserve the right to change it. The author will be informed if there is a difference of opinion regarding classification. The Level of Evidence should be listed after the abstract within the main document.

    Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications appearing in the journal are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the editors and publisher. The editors and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the editors nor the publisher guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    Electronic Art Submission

    Acceptable file formats:

    • TIFF (identified *.TIF) Tag Image File Format
    • EPS (identified *.EPS) Encapsulated Postscript File
    • JPEG (identified *.JPG) Joint Photographic Experts Group
    • The submission system will NOT accept PDF files

    File Requirements:

    • Line art (black and white) should be scanned at 1200 dpi at 1 bit
    • Color and grayscale images should be scanned at 300 dpi at 8 bit
    • Save each figure as its own file and do not include any extra text (ie, figure captions).
    • Sizing: Save the image to the size of the final printed version with an allowance of not more than 10% larger.

    4.3 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files

    4.4 Reference style

    Double-space references throughout, number them in the sequence in which they appear in the text, and identify them in text by superscript Arabic numerals. Accuracy and completeness of references are the author’s responsibility. References follow the American Medical Association’s Manual of Style (11th Edition). If there are more than 6 authors, the first 3 authors are used followed by “et al” including names and initials of all authors. Index Medicus abbreviations are used for journal titles, volume, inclusive page numbers, and year:

    • Journal: Mazze RI, Cousins MJ, Kosek JC. Strain differences in metabolism and susceptibility to the nephrotoxic effects of methoxyflurane in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1973;184:481-488.
    • Book: Baston HC. An Introduction to Statistics in the Medical Services. Minneapolis, Minn: Burgess; 1956:110-114.
    • Chapter: Cohen PJ, Marshall BE. Effects of halothane on respiratory control in rat liver mitochondria. In: Fink BR, ed. Toxicity of Anesthetics. Baltimore, Md: Williams and Wilkins; 1968:24-36.
    • Tables: Double space on pages separate from the text. Tables should not duplicate material text or illustrations.
    • Legends: Credit for any previously published illustration must be given in the corresponding legend. All symbols should be explained in the legend.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    FAS is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.


    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    7. Further information

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at


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